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Agent generated Demands
The needs made evident by the hazard. Problems resulting from the disaster agent itself.
A hazard agent that is produced in or by the earth's atmosphere
Agents that spread disease or are otherwise poisonous
Civil/ Conflict Hazards
Violent events that have the potential to produce mass casualties
A disruptive hazard associated with computer hardware and software
- Occur when a hazard interacts with human vulnerability.
- Public servants that help jurisdictions reduce the liabilities that lead to disasters.
- Help build community disaster capabilities.
Agents that involve degradation of the environment.
- Public Safety personnel such as
Earth's Soil and rock
- A physical
- or intentional agent
Earth's water systems
Produced by the extraction, creation, distribution, storage, use, and disposal of chemicals
Scale that measures earthquakes based on physical observation
Activities that attempt to prevent disasters or reduce potential for loss
The desire to learn from the disaster and avoid making similar mistakes.
- physical environment .
- Heat Flow
The pressures to get things back to pre-disaster conditions.
Activity in the IMMEDIATE aftermath to protect life and property
The needs that are made evident as we try to meet agent-generated demands
Explain the magnitude of hurricane in terms of wind and storm surge.
Hazard Agents related to industry, structures, haz mat, computers
The threat or use of violence to intimidate someone or a government
Poisons created by plants and animals
Concerned Citizens who receive some basic disaster training.
Emergency Management Assistance Compact
Similar to a mutual aid agreement but for states
Individuals who work together to perform common goals but do not have a formalized org.
Groups that perform routine tasks with existing structures
Groups that perform routine task with new structures.
Groups that perform nonroutine tasks with existing structures.
Created late 70s by Carter
The sharing of personnel, gear, and facilities.
Military under the Governor
National Response Plan
A document that describes what the gov. will do in catastrophic disasters
Businesses and corporations
Government offices, departments, and agencies
Features of Traditional Model
- 1. Highest priority to War Disasters
- 2. Gov. is most reliable due to social chaos.
- 3. Strict Hierarchy and SOPs
- 4. EM cares about first-responder issues only
Strengths of Trad. Model
- War May have most adverse impact on disaster
- Government is important actor
- SOPs provide logical guidelines
- Hierarchy may save lives
- Natural desire to bring order
Weakness of Trad. Model
- Nat. and Tech. disasters are more common.
- Gov. is NOT the only actor
- SOPs cannot provide all guidance
- Top-Down structures may slow down response
- It may be impossible to control a disaster
Features of Prof. Model
- 1. Nobody responds alone
- 2. Emergence cannot be prevented
- 3. The public is a resource
- 4. Hierarchical and top-down relations is sometimes impossible
- 5. No emergency plan will account for all types of disasters
- 6. Willingness to adapt.
Strengths of Prof. Model
- All-Hazards approach
- Acknowledges many actors
- Stresses integration of involved Parties
- Allows for Improv
- Broad picture of disasters
Weakness of Prof. Model
- Downplays wartime disasters
- Downplays Gov. Response
- Fails to recognize importance of hierarchical leadership
- Overlooks benefits of SOPs
- Fails to see details of field level operations