ch 11

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Author:
christal
ID:
41707
Filename:
ch 11
Updated:
2010-10-12 19:20:38
Tags:
pharm
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study guide
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  1. cardivascular drugs...
    • HTN
    • hyperlipidemia
    • CHF
    • angina
    • MI
    • cardiac arrhythmias
    • peripheral vasuclar disease
  2. blood pressure is measured by which 2 numbers?
    • systolic-max arterial pressure
    • diastolic-min arterial pressure
  3. what is HTN?
    increase in systolic/diastolic blood pressure
  4. what is second HTN?
    has another cause
  5. essential HTN....
    no identified cause
  6. what is the stepped-care approach?
    prior to meds, lifestyle changes may be tried.
  7. what do beta blockers do?
    heart beat less, dilate blood vessels resulting in lowering blood pressure!
  8. beta blocker drugs.
    zebata, lopressor, bystolic
  9. what do calcium channel blockers do?
    relax smooth muscle blood vessels dilate which decreases blood pressure

    ex: norvasc
  10. what does ACE stand for?
    angiotension-converting enzyme
  11. ACE inhibitors........
    lower blood pressure differently but DO NOT cause blood vessel dilation

    ex:lotensin, capoten, vasotec, monopril, zestril, accupril
  12. angiotension II receptor blocker drugs.....
    keep from binding to and activating receptors

    ex: diovan
  13. peripheral vasodilator drugs...
    relax smooth muscle letting them dilate lowering BP

    ex: apresoline and minoxidil
  14. *Did ya know?
    ROGAINE (minoxidil) lowers BP and also is used for balding
  15. hyperlipidemia..........
    both high cholesterol/high triglycerides in the blood.
  16. LDL is what?
    bad cholestrol
  17. HDL is what..?
    good cholestrol
  18. animal products do what to cholestrol?
    increase
  19. non-animal products do what to triglycerides?
    increase
  20. when cholestrol and triglycerides bind to proteins what is it called?
    lipoproteins
  21. antihyperlipidemia drugs act to:
    • increase HDL levels
    • decrease LDL levels
    • decrease VLDL levels
  22. drugs called statin drugs and are used to lower cholestrol are:
    lipitor, questran, pravastatin
  23. drug used to lower triglycerides:
    lopid
  24. CHF is......
    heart is enlarged and is too weak to pump blood
  25. right sided heart failure.....
    pooling of blood in venous circulation producing distended neck veins, liver enlargment, and edema in the extremities.
  26. left sided heart failure......
    backup of blood in lungs causing pulmonary edema
  27. 1st drug used for cardiac glycosides which heart pump slower and stronger.......
    digoxin
  28. what is the SA node?
    pacemaker of heart
  29. negative chronotropic effect....
    release of actylcholine slows electrical conduction allowing heart to fill completely bf next contraction
  30. postive inotropic effect..........
    cardiac glycosides increase strength contractions slowing heart to pump all blood out!
  31. symptoms of dig toxicity....
    pulse rate below 60, confusion, restlessness, N/V, diarrhea, hallucinations, yellow-green halos around lights.
  32. methods to treat dig toxicity.
    • decrease dosage of cardiac glycoside
    • decrease frequency given
    • administer an antidote-questran, digibind
  33. vasopressor drugs...
    dobutrex and dopamine
  34. angina......
    heart muscle isn't receiving enough oxygenated blood
  35. what does cellular ischemia mean?
    not enough oxygen getting into the cells
  36. if ischemia goes untreated what can happen?
    MI-heart attack
  37. drugs to treat angina.......
    • nitrates
    • beta blockers
    • calcium channel blockers
  38. beta blocker drugs for angina.....
    • decreasing heart rate which decrease need for more oxygen--decrease pain
    • ex: atenolol-tenormin, metoprolol-lopressor, propranolol-inderal
  39. calcium channel blockers for angina............
    • relax smooth muscle blood vessels decrease arterial pressure--decreases hearts need for oxygen----dilates coronary arteries
    • ex: amlodipine-norvasc, diltiazem-cardizem, verapamil-calan
  40. drugs that can prevent 2nd heart attacks........
    asipirin, inderal, tenormin, lopressor
  41. cardiac arrhythmias........
    abnormal conduction electrical impulses in heart

    i.e. bradycardia, heart block, tachycardia, atrial flutter, v-fib
  42. periphearal vascular disease.....
    decreased blood flow to extremities, heart disease, diabetes, arteriosclerosis.
  43. pulmonary arterial hypertension.......
    high pressure in lungs require heart-lung transplant.

    ex: flolan, revatio
  44. hypertensive crisis.....
    • life threating nature of increased blood pressure.
    • ex: given iv---hyperstat

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