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- cardiac arrhythmias
- peripheral vasuclar disease
blood pressure is measured by which 2 numbers?
- systolic-max arterial pressure
- diastolic-min arterial pressure
what is HTN?
increase in systolic/diastolic blood pressure
what is second HTN?
has another cause
no identified cause
what is the stepped-care approach?
prior to meds, lifestyle changes may be tried.
what do beta blockers do?
heart beat less, dilate blood vessels resulting in lowering blood pressure!
beta blocker drugs.
zebata, lopressor, bystolic
what do calcium channel blockers do?
relax smooth muscle blood vessels dilate which decreases blood pressure
what does ACE stand for?
lower blood pressure differently but DO NOT cause blood vessel dilation
ex:lotensin, capoten, vasotec, monopril, zestril, accupril
angiotension II receptor blocker drugs.....
keep from binding to and activating receptors
peripheral vasodilator drugs...
relax smooth muscle letting them dilate lowering BP
ex: apresoline and minoxidil
*Did ya know?
ROGAINE (minoxidil) lowers BP and also is used for balding
both high cholesterol/high triglycerides in the blood.
LDL is what?
HDL is what..?
animal products do what to cholestrol?
non-animal products do what to triglycerides?
when cholestrol and triglycerides bind to proteins what is it called?
antihyperlipidemia drugs act to:
- increase HDL levels
- decrease LDL levels
- decrease VLDL levels
drugs called statin drugs and are used to lower cholestrol are:
lipitor, questran, pravastatin
drug used to lower triglycerides:
heart is enlarged and is too weak to pump blood
right sided heart failure.....
pooling of blood in venous circulation producing distended neck veins, liver enlargment, and edema in the extremities.
left sided heart failure......
backup of blood in lungs causing pulmonary edema
1st drug used for cardiac glycosides which heart pump slower and stronger.......
what is the SA node?
pacemaker of heart
negative chronotropic effect....
release of actylcholine slows electrical conduction allowing heart to fill completely bf next contraction
postive inotropic effect..........
cardiac glycosides increase strength contractions slowing heart to pump all blood out!
symptoms of dig toxicity....
pulse rate below 60, confusion, restlessness, N/V, diarrhea, hallucinations, yellow-green halos around lights.
methods to treat dig toxicity.
- decrease dosage of cardiac glycoside
- decrease frequency given
- administer an antidote-questran, digibind
dobutrex and dopamine
heart muscle isn't receiving enough oxygenated blood
what does cellular ischemia mean?
not enough oxygen getting into the cells
if ischemia goes untreated what can happen?
drugs to treat angina.......
- beta blockers
- calcium channel blockers
beta blocker drugs for angina.....
- decreasing heart rate which decrease need for more oxygen--decrease pain
- ex: atenolol-tenormin, metoprolol-lopressor, propranolol-inderal
calcium channel blockers for angina............
- relax smooth muscle blood vessels decrease arterial pressure--decreases hearts need for oxygen----dilates coronary arteries
- ex: amlodipine-norvasc, diltiazem-cardizem, verapamil-calan
drugs that can prevent 2nd heart attacks........
asipirin, inderal, tenormin, lopressor
abnormal conduction electrical impulses in heart
i.e. bradycardia, heart block, tachycardia, atrial flutter, v-fib
periphearal vascular disease.....
decreased blood flow to extremities, heart disease, diabetes, arteriosclerosis.
pulmonary arterial hypertension.......
high pressure in lungs require heart-lung transplant.
ex: flolan, revatio
- life threating nature of increased blood pressure.
- ex: given iv---hyperstat