CH14:Social Psychology

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Author:
ht2lvu
ID:
41709
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CH14:Social Psychology
Updated:
2010-10-12 17:13:30
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ap psychology
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Description:
Social Psychology vocabulary
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  1. foot-in-door technique
    agreement to smaller request leads to agreement with larger request
  2. out-group homogeneity
    belief that members of another group are more similar in their attitudes than they actually are
  3. social facilitation
    an increase in an individual's performance because of being in a group
  4. just-world phenomenon
    tendency to believe in fairness, that people get what they deserve & deserve what they get
  5. contact theory
    if members of two opposing groups are brought together in an emergency situation, group cooperation will reduce prejudicial thinking
  6. central route to persuasion
    relatively stable change by carefully scrutinizing facts, statistics, & other information
  7. group think
    • Irving Janis
    • attempt to conform their opinions to what each believes to be the consensus of the group
  8. cognitive dissonance
    a highly motivating state in which people have conflicting cognitions, especially when their voluntary actions conflict with their attitudes
  9. self-serving bias
    an attributional pattern in which one takes credit for success but denies responsibility for failure
  10. discrimination
    a negative action taken against an individual as a result of his or her group membership
  11. in-group
    the group with which an individual identifies
  12. altruism
    the unselfish concern of one individual for the welfare of another, "helping" behavior
  13. social role
    one of several socially defined patterns of behavior that are expected of persons in a given setting
  14. social norms
    a group's expectations regarding what is appropriate & acceptable for it's members' attitudes & behaviors
  15. jugsaw classroom
    expert groups of diverse backgrounds learn one part of the lesson & share information in groups
  16. ethnocentrism
    belief that our culture or social group is superior to others
  17. scape goating
    blaming an innocent person or group for one's own troubles
  18. attribution theory
    way to understand how people explain others' behaviors
  19. group polarization
    when individuals in a group have similar, though not identical, view their opinions become more extreme
  20. situational factors/external attributions
    environmental stimuli that explains why they acted the way they did
  21. scapegoat theory
    attribute prejudice to frustration; when own self worth is in doubt or in jeopardy
  22. reciprocity
    small gift makes others feel obligation to agree to later request
  23. dispositional factor/internal attributions
    holds individual responsible
  24. prejudice
    negative attitude toward an individual based solely on his or her membership in a particular group
  25. social loafing
    a decrease in performance because of being in a group
  26. peripheral route to persuasion
    superficial factors used as distractors, leading to less stable change in attitudes
  27. out-group
    those outside the group with which an individual identifies
  28. bystander intervention
    the active involvement of a person in a situation that appears to require his/her aid
  29. diffusion of responsibility/ bystander effect
    dilution or weakening of each group member's obligation to act when responsibility is percieved to be shared with all group members
  30. asch effect
    a form of conformity in which a group majority influences individual judgements
  31. fundamental attribution error
    tendency to emphasize internal causes & ignore external pressures, more common in individualistic cultures than in collectisivistic cultures
  32. actor-observer bias
    tendency to focus on our situations & the other person rather than his/her situation when interpreting behavior
  33. door-in-face technique
    someone who makes a very large request we are likely to refuse & follows this up with a smaller one later on
  34. conformity
    the tendency for people to adpot the behaviors, attitudes, & opinions of other members of a group
  35. deindividuation
    occurs when group members lose their sense of personal identity & responsibility & the group "assumes" responsibility for their behavior
  36. social psychology
    the branch of psychology that studies the effects of social variables & cognitions on individual behavior & social interations

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