Medical Termiology

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Medical Termiology
2010-10-14 14:10:40

Chapter Three
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  1. Diaphysis
    The shaft of a long bone
  2. Meniscus
    The curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints such as the knee and temporomandibular joint of the jaw
  3. Articular cartilage
    Covers the surfaces of bones where they come together to form joints.
  4. Cartilage
    Smooth, rubbery, blue-white connective tissue that acts as a shock absorber between bones. It is more elastic than bone
  5. Yellow bone marrow
    Functions as a fat storage area, is composed chiefly of fat cells and is located in the medullary cavity
  6. -Poietic
    Pretaining to formation
  7. Hem/o
    Means blood
  8. Hemopietic
    Pretaining to the formation of blood cells
  9. Red bone marrow
    Located within the spongy bone, is a hemopoietic tissue that manafactures red bolld cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, and thrombocytes
  10. Medullary cavity
    Located in the shaft of a long bone and is surrounded by compact bone
  11. Compact bone
    The dense, hard and very strong bone that forms the protective outer layer of bones
  12. Spongy Bone
    Lighter, and not as strong, as compact bone. Red bone marrow is located within this spongy bone
  13. -Um
    Noun ending
  14. Oste
  15. Peri-
  16. Periosteum
    The tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of bone
  17. Skeletal System
    Consists of the bones, bone marrow, cartilage, joints, ligaments, synovial membrane, synovial fluid and bursa
  18. Brus/o
  19. Synovi/o, Synov/o
    Synovial Fluid
  20. Synovi/o, synov/o
    Synovial Membrane
  21. Ligament/o
  22. Arthr/o
  23. Chondr/o
  24. Myel/o
    Bone Marrow
  25. Ulna
    The larger and longer bone of the forearm
  26. Radius
    The smaller and shorter bone in the forearm.
  27. Humerus
    The bone of the upper arm
  28. Acromion
    An extension of the scapula that forms the high point of the shoulder
  29. Scapula
    Aka: The shoulder blade
  30. Clavicle
    • Aka: The collar bone
    • A slender bone that connects the manubrium of the sternum to the scapula
  31. Pectoral Gridle
    Supports the arms and hands; aka: the shoulder gridle
  32. Xiphoid Process
    The structure made of cartilage that forms the lower portion of the sternum
  33. Body of the sternum
    The bony structure that forms the middle portion fo the sternum
  34. Manubrium
    The bony structure that forms the upper portion of the sternum
  35. Sternum
    • AKA: The brestbone
    • Forms the middle of the front of the rib cage and is divided into 3 parts.
    • Manbrium, body of the sternum, and xiphoid process
  36. Floating Ribs
    The last 2 pairs of ribs that are only attached posteriorly
  37. False Ribs
    The next 3 pairs of ribs that are attached anteriorly to cartilage that joins with the sternum
  38. True Ribs
    The first seven pairs of ribs attached anteriorly to the sternum
  39. Thoracic Cavity
    • AKA: The rib cage
    • The bony structure that protects the heart and lungs
  40. Mandible
    • AKA: The jawbone
    • The only movable bone of the skull
  41. Vomer Bone
    Forms the base for the nasal septum
  42. Inferior Conchae
    The thin, scroll-like bones that form part of the interior of the nose
  43. Lacrimal Bones
    Make up part of the orbit at the inner angle of the eye
  44. Palatine Bones
    Form part of the hard plate of the mouth and the floor of the nose
  45. Maxillary Bones
    Form most of the upper jaw
  46. Zygomatic Bones
    AKA: Cheekbones Articulate with the frontal bone
  47. Nasal Bones
    Form the upper part of the bridge of the nose
  48. External Auditory meatus
    Located in the temporal bone on each side of the skull
  49. Auditory Ossicles
    Six tiny bones in the middle ear.
  50. Ethmoid Bone
    Forms part of the posterior portion of the nose, orbit and the floor of the cranium
  51. Orbit
    Bony socket that surrounds and protects the eyeball
  52. Sphenoid Bone
    Forms part of the base of the skull and parts of the floor and sides of the orbit.
  53. Temporal Bones
    Form the sides and base of the cranium
  54. Occipital Bone
    Forms the posterior floor and walls of the cranium
  55. Parietal Bones
    Form most of the roof and upper sides of cranium
  56. Frontal bone
    • Forms the forehead
    • Bone of the cranium
  57. Cranium
    Made up of 8 bones and its the portion of the skull that encloses the brain
  58. Appendicular Skeleton
    Makes body movement possible and also protects the organs of digestion, excretion, and reproduction
  59. Axial Skelton
    Protects the major organs of the nervous, respitaroy and circulartory system
  60. Osteomalacia
    • Abnormal softening of bones in adults
    • Aka: Adult Rickets
  61. Osteitis
    Inflammation of a bone
  62. Fibrous dysplasia
    A bone disorder of unknown cause that destroys normal bone structure and replaces it with fibrous (scar like) tissue
  63. Craniostenosis
    • A malformation of the skull due to the premature closure of the cranial sutures
    • Crani/o means skull
    • -stenosis means abnormal narrowing
  64. Scoliosis
    Abnormal lateral (sideways) curvature of the spine
  65. Lordosis
    The abnormal increase in the forward curvatre of hte lumbar spine. Aka: Swayback
  66. Kyphosis
    Abnormal increase inthe outward curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side
  67. Spina Bifida
    A congenital defect that occurs during early pergnancy when the spinal canal fails to close completely around the spinal cord to protect it
  68. Spondylolishesis
    The forward slipping movement of hte body of one of the lower lumbar vertebrae on the vertebra or sacrum below it
  69. Lumbago
    • Aka: Low back pain
    • The pain of the lumbar region of the spine
  70. Herniated Disk
    • Aka: Slipped or ruptured disk
    • The breaking apart of an intervertebral disk that results in pressure on spinal nerve roots
  71. Ankylosing Spondylitis
    A form of RA that primarily causes inflammation of hte joints between the verterbrae
  72. Rheumatoid Arthritis
    Chronic autoimmune disorder in which the joints and some organs of the other body systems are attacked
  73. Gouty Arthritis
    • Aka: Gout
    • Type of arthritis characterized by deposits of uric acid in the joints
  74. Spondylosis
    • Aka: Spinal osteoarthritis
    • Degenerative disorder that can cause the loss of normal spinal structure and function
  75. Osteoarthritis
    • Aka: Wear and tear arthritis
    • Most commonly associated with aging
  76. Arthritis
    Inflammatory condition of one or more joints
  77. Subluxation
    The partial displacement of a bone from its joint
  78. Dislocation
    • Aka: Luxation
    • The total displacement of a bone from its joint
  79. Synovitis
    Inflammation of the synovial membrane that results in sewlling and pain of the affected joint
  80. Hemarthrosis
    Blood within a joint
  81. Hallux Valgus
    • Aka: Bunion
    • The abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe
  82. Chondroma
    A slow growing benign tumor derived form cartilage cells
  83. Chondroma
    An inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the sternum
  84. Chondromalacia
    The abnormal softening of cartilage
  85. Brusitis
    An inflammation of a brusa
  86. Arthrosclerosis
    The stiffness of the joints, especially in the eldery
  87. Ankylosis
    The loss or absence of mobility in a joint due to disease, injury or a surgical procedure
  88. Podiartrist
    Foot Dr
  89. Osteopath
    Holds a Dr of osteopathy degree and uses traditional forms of medical tx in addition to specializing in treating health problems by spinal manipulation
  90. Orthopedic Surgeon
    A physician who specializes in the diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders involving the bones, joints and muscles
  91. Chiropractor
    Dr that specializes in the diagnosing and treating of diseases and disorders involving the bones, joints and muscles
  92. Metatarsals
    Form that part of the foot to which the toes are attached
  93. Calcaneus
    • Aka: The heel bone
    • The largest of the tarsal bones
  94. Talus
    The anklebone that articulates with the tibia and fibula
  95. Tarsal
    The 7 short bones that make up the ankle
  96. Ankles
    Form the joint between the lower leg and the foot
  97. Malleolus
    The rounded bony protuberance on each side of the ankle
  98. Fibula
    The smaller of the two bones in the lower leg
  99. Tibia
    • Aka: The shinebone
    • The lager weight bearing bone in the anterior of the lower leg
  100. Cruciate Ligaments
    Makes the movemtnts of the knee possible
  101. Popliteal
    Referring to the posterior space behind the knee where the ligaments, vessels and muscles related to this joint are located
  102. Patella
    • Aka: The kneecap
    • The bony anterior portion of the knee
  103. Knees
    The complex joints that make possible movement between the upper and lower leg
  104. Femur
    The upper leg bone
  105. Acetabulum
    • Aka: The hip socket
    • The large circular cavity in each side of the pelvis that articulates with the head of the femur to form the hip joint
  106. Pubis
    Forms the anterior portion of the pubic bone, is located just below the urinary bladder
  107. Ischium
    Forms the lower posterior portion of the pubic bone, bears the weight of the body when sitting
  108. Ilium
    The broad blade shaped bone that forms the back and sides of the pubic bone
  109. Pelvic Grindle
    Protects internal organs and supports the lower extremities, aka pelvis or hips
  110. Intervertebral Disks
    Are made of cartilage, separate and cushion the vertebrae from each other
  111. Coccyx
    • Aka: the tailbone
    • Forms the end of the spine and is actually made up of 4 small vertebrae that are fused together
  112. Sacrum
    The slightly curved, triangular-shaped bone near the base of the spine that forms the lower portion of the back
  113. Lumbar Vertebrae
    Make up the third set of the 5 vertebrae and form the inward curve of the lower spine
  114. Thoracic Vertebrae
    Make up the second set of 12 vertebrae. The form the outward curve of the spine and are known as T1-T12
  115. Cervical Vertebrae
    The first set of 7 vertebrae that for the neck
  116. Vertebrae
    The bony sturcture units of the spinal column
  117. Spinal Column
    Supports the head and body
  118. Phalanges
    The 14 bones of the fingers and bones of the toes
  119. Metacarpals
    The 5 bones that form the palms of the hand
  120. Carpals
    8 bones that form the wrist
  121. Olecranon Process
    Commonly known as the funny bone. Forms the point of the elbow and exposes a nerve that tingles when struck
  122. Osteopenia
    Thinner than the average bone density in a young person. Used to describe the condition of someone who does not yet have osteoporosis, but is at risk of developing it
  123. Osteoporosis
    A marked loss of bone density and an increase in a bone porosity that is frequently associated with aging
  124. Osteochondroma
    A benign bony projection covered with cartilage
  125. Myeloma
    A type of cancer that occurs in blood-making cells found in the red bone marrow
  126. Secondary bone cancer
    Describes tumors that have metastasized (spread) to bones form other organs such as the brests and lungs
  127. Primary bone cancer
    A relatively rare malignant tumor that orginates in a bone
  128. Talipes
    • Aka: Clubfoot
    • Describes any congential deformity of the foot involving the talus (ankle bone)
  129. Short Stature
    • Aka: Dawrfism
    • A condition resultin form the failure of the bones of hte limbs to grow to an appropriate length
  130. Rickets
    A deficiency disease occurring in children
  131. Periostitis
    Inflammation of the peristeum
  132. Paget's Disease
    A bone disease of unknown cause. This condition is characterized by the excessive breakdown of the bone tissue, followed by abnormal bone formation.
  133. Osteonercrosis
    The death of bone tissue due to lack of insufficient blood supply
  134. Bones
    oss/e, oss/i, oste/o, ost/o