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Area _: anterior to central sulcus on precentral gyrus; primary motor cortex; movement of contralateral side of body. Lowest Threshold for eliciting movement.
Area _ : Lateral(Premotor Area) connects to reticulospinal neurons that then connect to proximal muscles (posture). Medial (supplemental motor area) connects directly with distal muscles (planning and initiation of movements.
Layer _ in Cortex: has pyramidal cells called ____ cells. Project to Spinal Cord and Brain Stem.
M1 neurons activate immediately before and during voluntary movement. Encode for ____ and ____.
Force and Direction
Lesion to ______ ______ Cortex causes impaired body image and perceptual spatial issues (severe=neglect)
Posterior Parietal Cortex
______ areas: involved in abstract thought, decision making, anticipating consequences of actions.
_____ _____: unable to carry out movements despite having intact sensation, movement, and cognition. Caused by damage to Premotor or SMA.
________: unable to perform purposeful movement on command despite understanding concept; may perform movement automatically.
_______: loss of ability to conceptualize, plan, and execute sequence of motor actions involving the use of tools or objects in everyday life.
– Receives somatosensory, proprioreceptive, and visual inputs,then uses them to determine such things as the positions ofthe body and the target in space.– Produces internal models of the movement to be made, priorto the involvement of the premotor and motor cortices.– Works with Prefrontal area to make decision aboutmovements to be made.– These send info to Area 6 informing about the kind of actionto take.– Areas 6 then determines the characteristics of theappropriate movement for this purpose.
______ ______: made up of: – Caudate– Putamen– Globus Pallidus: output to Thalamus– Subthalamic Nucleus– Substantia Nigra (not true B.G. but closely linked)
Caudate + putamen=
_______ ______: regulates muscle contraction, muscle force, multijoint movements, and sequence of movements.
Direct Path for Motor: ____ to ____ to _____ ____ to ___ to _______
cortex to striatum to globus pallidus to VLo to Cortex
Functional consequences of activation of putamen is _____.
1. = decreased movement•
2. Slowness of movement =
3. Difficulty initatiating movement =
4. Increased muscle tone =
5. Tremors of hands & jaw, increased at rest– Also cognitive deficits– Cause: degeneration of Substantia Nigra
- Parkinson’s disease
_______ Disease: doesn't present until well into adulthood. Presents with Chorea: spontaneous, uncontrollable, purposeless movements with rapid, irregular motions of various body parts. Loss of neurons in Caudate Nucleus, Putamen,& Globus Pallidus as well as in Cerebral Cortex
_______: type of hyperkinesia involving violent, flinging of extremities. Caused by damage to subthalamic nucleus.
______: Provides control over the timing of the body'smovements; does so by means of a loop circuit that connects it to the motor cortex and modulates thesignals that the motor cortex sends to the motorneurons. Plays a role in analyzing the visual signals associatedwith movement; may come from the movement of objects within the field of vision or from the sight of the moving body segmentsthemselves.
_______: uncooridinated movements caused by lesion to cerebellum. _____: move shoulders then elbow and wrist. ______: fingers end up short of or past nose.
__________: equilibrium and balance responsible for postural muscles and eye movements.
__________: gross limb movements and posture.
__________: responsible for distal limb voluntary movements.