Psychology CH3

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Psychology CH3
2010-10-12 22:41:14

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  1. Inhibitory
    A postsynoptic potential that hyperpolarizes the neuronal membrane, making a cell less likely to fire an action potential
  2. excitatory
    A postsynaptic potential that depolarizes the neuronal membrane, making that cell more likely to fire an action potential
  3. postsynaptic potential
    The change in the membrane potential of a neuron that has received stimulation from another neuron
  4. receptor
    Site on the surface of a cell that allows only one type of neurotransmitter to fit into it, triggering a chemical response that may lead to action potential
  5. neurotransmitter
    chemical that assists in the transfer of signals from one neutron to another
  6. refractory period
    short rest period between action potentials
  7. myelin
    fatty substance that wraps around some axons and increases the speed of action potential
  8. action potential
    abrupt wave of electrochemical changes traveling down an axon when a neuron becomes depolarized
  9. synapse
    gap across which neurons communicate
  10. dendrite
    neuron fiber that receives signals from the axons of other neurons and carriers those signals to the cell body
  11. axon
    neuron fiber that carries signals from the body of a neuron out to where it communicates with other neurons
  12. glial cell
    cell in the nervous system that holds neurons together and helps them communicate
  13. neuron
    fundamental unit of the nervous system; nerve cell
  14. hindbrain
    An extension of the spinal cord contained in side the skull where nuclei control blood pressure, heart rate, breathing and other vital functions
  15. sensory cortex
    parts of the cerebral cortex that receive stimulus information from the senses
  16. medulla
    area of the hindbrain that controls blood pressure, heart rate, breathing and other vital functions
  17. cerebral cortex
    outer surface of the brain
  18. cerebral hemispheres
    left and right halves of the rounded outermost part of the brain
  19. hypothalamus
    structure in forebrain that regulates hunger, thirst and sex drives
  20. autonomic nervous system
    the subsystem of the peripheral nervous system that carries messages between the central nervous system and the heart, lungs and other organs and glands
  21. somatic nervous system
    the subsystem of the peripheral nervous system that transmits information from the senses to the central nervous system and carries signals to the muscles
  22. thalamus
    forebrain structure that relays signals from most sense organs to higher levels in the brain and plays an important role in processing and making sense out of this information
  23. forebrain
    most highly developed part of the brain; it is responsible for the most complex aspects of behavior and mental life
  24. central nervous system
    parts of the nervous system encased in bone including the brain and the spinal cord
  25. peripheral nervous system
    parts of nervous system not housed in bone
  26. motor systems
    the parts of the nervous system that influence muscles and other organs to respond to the environment in some way
  27. sensory systems
    the parts of the nervous system that provides information about the environment
  28. association cortex
    parts of the cerebral cortex that receive information from more than one sense or that combines senses and motor information to perform complex cognitive tasks
  29. reticular formation
    network of cells and fibers threaded throughout the hindbrain that alters the activity of the rest of the brain
  30. substantia nigra
    an area of the midbrain involved in the smooth initiation of movement
  31. neural network
    neurons that operate together to perform complex functions
  32. suprachiasmatic nuclei
    nuclei in the hypothalamus that generate biological rhythms
  33. midbrain
    a small structure between the hindbrain and forebrain that relays information from the eyes, ears and skin that controls certain types of automatic behaviors
  34. striatum
    structure within the forebrain that is involved in the smooth initiation of movement
  35. nuclei
    collection of nerve cell bodies in the central nervous system
  36. fiber tracts
    axons in the central nervous system that travel together in bundels
  37. spinal cord
    part of the central nervous system within the spinal column that relays signals from the brain to peripheral nervous system and conveys messages to the rest of the body
  38. locus coeruleus
    • a small nucleus in the reticular formation involved in attention, sleep and mood
    • vigillance
  39. cerebellum
    part of the hindbrain whose function is to control finely coordinated movements and to store learned association that involve movement
  40. limbic system
    set of brain structures that play important roles in regulating emotion and memory
  41. hippocampus
    structure in the forebrain associated with the formation of new memories
  42. amygdala
    structure in forebrain that associates stimuli
  43. motor cortex
    part of the cerebral cortex whose neurons control voluntary movements in specific parts of the brain
  44. reflex
    involuntary unlearned reaction in the form of swift, automatic, and finely coordinated movements in response to stimuli
  45. corpus callosum
    a massive bundle of fibers that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres and allows them to communicate with each other
  46. lateralized
    referring to the tendency for one cerebral hemisphere to excel at a particular function or skill compared with the other hemisphere
  47. plasticity
    the ability to create new synapses and to change the strength of synapses
  48. neurotransmitter system
    a group of neurons that communicate by using the same neurotransmitter
  49. acetylcholine
    a neurotransmitter used by neurons in the peripheral and central nervous systems in the control of functions ranging from muscle contraction and heart rate to digestion and memory
  50. norepinephrine
    a neurotransmitter involved in arousal, as well as in learning and mood regulation
  51. serotonin
    a neurotransmitter used by cells in parts of the brain involved in the regulation of sleep, mood, and eating
  52. dopamine
    a neurotransmitter used in the parts of the brain involved in regulating movement and experiencing pleasure
  53. GABA
    a neurotransmitter that inhibits the firing of neurons
  54. glutamate
    an excitatory neurotransmitter that helps strengthen synaptic connections between neurons
  55. endorphin
    one of a class of neurotransmitters that bind to opiate receptors and moderate pain
  56. endocrine system
    cells that form organs called glands and that communicate with one another by secreting chemicals called hormones
  57. gland
    an organ that secretes hormones into the blood stream
  58. hormone
    chemical secreted by a gland into the bloodstream, which carries it throughout the body
  59. fight-or-flight syndrome
    physical reactions initiated by the sympathetic nervous system that prepare the body to fight or to run from a threatening situation
  60. immune system
    the body's system of defense against invading substances and microorganisms
  61. autoimmune disorders
    physical problems caused when cells of the body's immune system attack normal body cells as if they were foreign invaders
  62. lateral hypothalamus
    stimulate eating
  63. ventromedial nucleus
    stimulate satiety