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2010-10-12 21:57:32

Basics of Immunology
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  1. What is Biotechnology?
    Any technique that uses living organisms or substances from those organisms.
  2. What does Biotechnology use?
    Microorganisms, plants, or animals
  3. What are some of the different disciplines of biotechnology?
    Cell and molecular biology, Microbiology, Genetics, Anatomy and physiology, Biochemistry, Engineering, Computer science
  4. What are the applications of biotechnology?
    • Agriculture- developing disease resistant crop plants and livestock, and improving food quality
    • Biomedical- Diagnostics for detecting genetic diseases and acquired diseases, therapies that use genes to cure diseases, recombinant vaccines to prevent diseases, assisted reproduction
    • Environmental- cleans the environment through bioremediation.
  5. What is the history of Domestication and Agriculture?
    Ancient biotechnology started with agriculture 10,000 years ago and the use of fermented food and beverage.
  6. Who was Nikolai Vavilov?
    A Russian plant geneticist traveled around the world to collect plant germplasm
  7. Give some basic information about Germplasms.
    • It is used for selective breeding
    • It is in danger because of agricultural expansion- monoculture and the use of herbicides
    • CGIAR makes a global effort to salvage germplasm.
  8. What is fermentation?
    It is a microbial process to transform organic compounds in to foods, alcohol and pharmaceutical products
  9. How was fermentation discovered?
    Accidentally from stored fruits, and unbaked dough
  10. What are some types fermented foods?
    • Bean-based
    • Grain-based
    • Vegetable-based
    • Fruit-based
    • Dairy-based
    • Fish-based
    • Meat-based
  11. What describes the development that fermentation has taken from ancient times to the present?
    Classical Biotechnology
  12. What are some of the products in Classical Biotechnology that were developed?
    Glycerol, acetone, butanol, lactic acid, citric acid, and yeast biomass.
  13. What are the foundations of Modern Biotechnology?
    • First Microscope- 1590
    • Anton van Leeuwenhoek- single lens microscope 1670 and discovered cells
    • Robert Hooke- 1665- thinly sliced cork
    • Separating living from nonliving 1800's
  14. What did Pasteur's experiment refute?
    The theory of spontaneous generation
  15. What was Eduard Buchner experiment?
    She converted sugar to ethyl alcohol using yeast extracts
  16. What did Gregor Mendel formulate?
    The Fundamental Laws of Heredity
  17. What did Fredrich Miesher do?
    Isolated the nuclei from white blood cells
  18. What did Walter Flemming discover?
    He discovered chromosomes
  19. What did Walter Sutton do?
    Determined that chromosomes carry genes.
  20. What were the three experiments that described genetic material?
    • Study on bacterial transformation
    • Transformation study
    • Experiment on bacteria and bacteriophage
  21. What did Watson and Crick discover in 1953?
    That DNA was a double helix
  22. What shows the information, or message, of DNA?
    Sequences of deoxyribonucleotides.
  23. When was the genetic code cracked?
  24. What is recombinant technology?
    The use of plasmids and restriction enzymes
  25. What are some of the public reaction to Recombinant DNA Technology?
    • Gene Therapy raised question of eugenics
    • Fear of - human cloning - Genetically engineered foods or genetically modified organisms
  26. What 3 scientific discoveries have contributed to modern cell biology?
    • Cytology (study of cell structure by microscope)
    • Biochemistry (study of chemistry of living cells and organisms)
    • Genetics (study of the transmission of genetic information)
  27. What are macromolecules?
    Lipids, polysaccarides, Proteins, and nucleic acids.
  28. What are lipids?
    • A broad group of hydrophobic organic molecules.
    • saturated and unsatured
  29. What are polysaccharides?
    • Made of repeating units called simple sugars.
    • Have 2 major functions. Structure and energy storage
  30. What are proteins?
    • Large organic compounds that determine many organismal characteristics and have different functions.
    • They are made from polymers called amino acids.
  31. What are the four major chemical classifications of amino acids?
    • Nonpolar
    • Uncharged Polar
    • Negatively Charged Polar
    • Positively Charged Polar
  32. What are nucleic acids?
    • It is involved with the storage and transmission of information within the cell.
    • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
  33. What are the three components of deoxyribonucleotides?
    • A phosphate group
    • Ribose or deoxyribose
    • A nitrogenous base (One of four A, T, C, G)
  34. What breaks hydrogen bonds?
    • High temperature
    • Extreme pH
    • Enzymes
  35. What are the two major functions of RNA?
    • Transfers genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
    • Protein Synthesis work
  36. How are DNA and RNA different?
    • RNA has Uracil, DNA has Thyamine
    • RNA has ribose, DNA has deoxyribose
    • RNA is a single strand, DNA is a double helix
  37. What are the three classes of RNA?
    • Messenger RNA
    • Transfer RNA
    • Ribosomal RNA
  38. What are the two subunits of RNA?
    Large and Small
  39. What is the processes of central dogma?
    DNA --(transcription)--> mRNA --(translation)-->protein
  40. What is required for cell division?
    DNA replication
  41. DNA replication is initiated at a specific point called what?
    Origin of Replication
  42. Prokaryotes have how many origins of replication?
  43. Eukaryotes have multiple ________ __ _______?
    Origins of replication
  44. What are the 4 different enzymes and proteins required for DNA Replication and what do they do?
    • Helicase- breaks Hydrogen Bond
    • DNA gyrase- relax supper coiled DNA strand
    • RNA primer- indicate starting point for DNA synthesis
    • DNA polymerase- Adds bases to the new strand
  45. What are genes?
    A stretch of nucleotides on either strand of DNA coding for protein or non-coding.
  46. What are the 2 classes of protein encoding genes?
    • Structural genes- codes proteins that have a structural or enzymatic function
    • Regulatory genes- controls the activity of structural gene
  47. What is the genetic code?
    • A triplet code
    • Sequences of bases in DNA that specifies the order of amino acid in polypepetide
    • It is universal
  48. What is transcription?
    The process of making mRNA from DNA
  49. What are the 4 steps in transcription?
    • Binding of RNA polymerase to DNA
    • Initiation to make mRNA
    • Elongation of mRNA
    • Termination of transcription
  50. What is translation and where does it occur?
    • The process of making protein.
    • It occurs in the cytoplasm.
  51. What are the three steps in translation?
    • Chain initiation- assembling of translation machineries
    • Chain elongation- tRNA add new amino acid on the growing polypeptide
    • Chain termination- Polypeptide synthesis is terminated by stop codon.
  52. What are the stop codons?
  53. What is the start codon?