Philosophy Exam 2
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concerns itself with what the origin and function of government is.
the most just way to distribute wealth in a society.
right we are born with that can't be taken away or given by government.
any principles or rules discovered by reason.
state of nature
theoretical understanding of how humans would act without government.
agreement between citizens to transfer power to the sovereign.
a natural right to own the fruits of labor.
a class of capitalists who own all of the means of production.
a class of working wage-earners who own none of the means of production.
liberal state (Rawls)
democratic state that sets a minimum standard of living and provides opportunities, through taxation, for the disadvantaged.
veil of ignorance (Rawls)
game we play in order to come up with the best society, involving pretending we can't see what makes us different.
minimal state (Nozick)
minimum government that only functions to protect us from fraud and force.
Two Treatises on Governmnet
The Communist Manifesto
Theory of Justice
Anarchy, State, and Utopia
Hobbes: Life in a state of nature___
Hobbes: Why do we form government?
Hobbes: 3 causes of conflict are____
competition, glory, and diffidence
Hobbes said we are all __
equal (as in equally able)
social contract theory:
government started by contract
capitalism/right to pass on inheritance
Hobbes: Rebellion is ___
Hobbes: our natural right is ____
to life, it's a biological right.
Hobbes: 3 natural laws
- -seek peace
- -make and agreement with others for peace (covenant)
- -abide by the covenant
justice; there are no unjust laws
Hobbes: laws are____
the will of the sovereign (monarch)
Locke: 3 things lacking in a state of nature
- -impartial judges
- -uniform laws
- -power of enforcement
Locke: natural rights (God given)
Locke: limits are____
- -none on money
- -limit on property, take as much as you can use
Locke's 2 influences:
- -Darwin (evolutionary theory)
- -Hegel (conflict/resolution theory)
- 1) history is a series of interrelated effects
- 2) history is progressive
- 3) conflicts in society are caused by economic class conflicts
Economic Criticism of Capitalism:
- 1) natural conflict between 2 classes
- 2) capitalism creates cycles of depression and recession
Moral Criticisms of Capitalism:
- 1) destroys man's inherent value
- 2) hurts family (i.e.: child labor)
- 3) creates unnecessary attachment to material things
- 4) creates a nation of dependents
"From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs."
Ideal Communist Society:
- 1) classless society
- 2) focuses on real world needs and not false ones
- 3) abolition of private enterprise (collectives)
- 4) rotation of labor
- 5) equitable distribution of wealth and goods
Nozick: 2 purposes for governmnet
- 1) prevent fraud
- 2) prevent force
Nozick's famous quote:
"Initial acquisition must be just"
Rawls: We are born ___
Rawls: principles of a just society
- 1) equal and maximum liberty
- 2) wealth and power is to be distributed equally EXCEPT where an unequal distribution benefits society and the disadvantaged
Rawls: Socially primary goods
- 1) wealth
- 2) liberty
- 3) equal opportunity
- 4) self-respect (dignity)
Nozick: Obligation to the poor?
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