Chapter Three

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kfs9504
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Chapter Three
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2010-10-12 22:46:44
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Cells the living units
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  1. Membrane lipids composition
    • 75% phospholipids (bilayer)
    • 5 % glycolipids (carbs)
    • 20 % cholesterol
  2. Semipermeable
    regulates what comes in and out of cell
  3. plasma membrane function
    seperates intracellular fluid (ICF) from extracellular fluid (ECF)
  4. Nucleus
    control center
  5. Cytoplasm
    intracellular fluid containing organelles
  6. plasma membrane
    "cell membrane" flexible outer boundary
  7. Golgi Apparatus
    stacked and flattened membranous sacs
  8. Rough ER has what well developed?
    golgi apparatus
  9. Intermediate filaments (variety of proteins)
    tough, insoluble, protein fibers constructed like woven ropes
  10. Microfilaments (actin)
    strands made of sperical protein sub units called actins
  11. Microtubules (tubulin)
    hollow tubes of sperical protein subunits called tubulins
  12. Cytoskeleton
    elaborate series of rods throughout cytosol
  13. 3 types of cytoskeleton
    1. microtubules (tubulin) 2. microfilaments (actin) 3. intermediate filaments (variety of proteins)
  14. Lysomes
    sperical membranous bags containig digestive enzymes. digest ingested bacteria, viruses, and toxins
  15. Sarcoplasmic reticulum
    stores calcium when muscle cells at rest
  16. Smooth ER in skeletal and cardiac muscle
    storage and release of calcium
  17. Smooth ER in intestinal cells
    absorbtion, synthesis, and transport of fats
  18. Smooth ER in liver
    breakdown of glycogen and detoxification
  19. Rough ER
    external ribosomes. synthesizes membrane
  20. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
    interconnected tubes and parallel membranes (smooth ER rough ER)
  21. Ribosomes
    hook amino acids together to form peptide bond
  22. Mitochondria
    needs oxygen. "soupy material". provide cells ATP. contain own DNA
  23. Thickness of the plasma membrane
    10 nanometers
  24. Cytoplasmic organelles that are nonmembranous
    cytoskeleton and ribosomes
  25. cytoplasmic organelles taht are membranous
    mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus
  26. cytoplasmic organelles
    metabolic machinery of cell
  27. cytoplasm
    located between plasma membrane and nucleus
  28. Outside of plasma membrane, the charge is always what
    0
  29. Resting membrane potential (RMP)
    voltage measured in resting state in all cells
  30. Membrane Potential
    seperation of oppositely charged particles across a membrane creates
  31. Excitable Cells
    neurons and muscle cells. AP. brief. reversal so positive.
  32. What 4 processes are powered by ATP
    1. primary active transport 2. exocytosis 3. phagocytosis 4. pinocytosis
  33. What does the cytoskeleton do?
    helps movement of vesicles to surface by use of ATP
  34. Exocytosis
    Secretory cells. product for use outside of cells. release a lot in pulses
  35. Pinocytosis
    fluid phase endocytosis. deform the plasma membrane.
  36. what are the 2 kinds of phagocytosis
    macrophages and some white blood cells
  37. Phagocytosis
    pseudopods engulf solids and bring them into cells interior
  38. Endocytosis
    draws material into cells
  39. How many flagella are present at once
    1
  40. How many cilia are present at once
    6-10
  41. flagella
    motile extensions on surfaces of certain cells. contain microtubules and motor molecules.
  42. Cilia
    motile extensions on surface of certain cells. move substance across surface. contain microtubules and motor molecules
  43. Motor molecules
    little cellular muscles. powered by ATP
  44. importance of intermediate filaments
    support cell shape
  45. importance of microfilaments
    contraction
  46. Importance of microtubules
    shape and movement
  47. Dynein
    protein motor with cilia and flagella
  48. Hair cells
    sensitive cells inside of ear (helps sound travel)
  49. Integral Proteins
    firmly inserted into the membrane (transmembrane)
  50. Peripheral Proteins
    include filament on intracellular sufrace and glycoproteins on extra-cellular surface
  51. Function of membrane proteins
    1. transport 2. receptors 3. intercellular joining 4. cell-cell recognition 5. enzymatic activity
  52. Cause of autoimmune diseases
    cell recognition not correct and cause cells to attack own tissue
  53. 3 types of membrane junctions
    1. tight junction 2. desmosome 3. gap junction
  54. tight junctions
    prevent molecules from passing through intercellular space. looks like stitchnig
  55. Desmosomes
    bind cells together. causes a very strong attachment
  56. gap junctions
    very imporatnt for communication. pass from one cell to the next.
  57. passive processes (diffusion based)
    no energy required. happens by itself. does not reach equilibrium
  58. active processes
    energy (ATP) required. works uphill against gradient concentration
  59. concentration gradient
    more atoms on one side than the other side
  60. simple diffusion
    nonpolar lipid- soluble (hydrophobic) substances diffuse directly through phospholipid bilayers
  61. leakage channels
    always open
  62. gated channels
    (majority) "has a lid on it" chemically or electronically opened
  63. two types of channel proteins
    1. leakage channels 2. gated channels
  64. 2 types of facilitated diffusion
    1. carrier proteins 2. channel proteins
  65. carrier proteins
    transmembrane integral proteins transport specific polar proteins. saturable
  66. Channel proteins
    channels formed by protein transports water and ions. hard to saturate
  67. osmosis
    movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane
  68. aquaporins (AQPs)
    water diffuses through plasma membrane through these water channels
  69. molecules move individually
    active transport
  70. vesicular transport
    'bundles' move together
  71. two types of active processes
    1. active transport 2. vesicular transport
  72. active transport
    require carrier protein and pump. moves against concentration gradient
  73. two types of active transport
    1. primary active transport 2. secondary active transport
  74. primary active transport
    atp causes shape change so ions are "pumped"
  75. how much energy is used during sodium- potassium atpase?
    3%- 10%
  76. phagocytosis
    pseudopods engulf solids and bringthem into cells interior
  77. oncogenes
    onco= cancer. cell cycle promoters. "unspecialized"
  78. stem cell therapy
    use blood from umbilical cord
  79. stem cells
    unspecialized cells. ex. bone marrow
  80. what two items are hard to repair?
    nerve cells and muscle
  81. are epithealial tissues hard to repair?
    no
  82. increase in cell number means
    growth
  83. cytokinesis
    division of cytoplasm by cleavage furrow
  84. mitosis
    nuclear cell division event
  85. mitotic (M) phase
    needed for growth and tissue repair. does not occur in most mature cells
  86. G2
    preparation for division
  87. S
    DNA copied. chromosomes total 46 (doubled)= 92 total
  88. G0
    gap phase where cells quit dividing
  89. G1
    80% pf time. prepare to reproduce. vigarous growth and metabolism
  90. Four sub divisions of interphase
    G1 G0 G2 S
  91. Interphase
    period from cell formation to cell division
  92. cell cycle
    life and times of a cell
  93. nuclear envelope
    double membrane barrier containing pores
  94. red blood cells are ____
    anucleate
  95. nucleus
    main battery that directs cellular activity
  96. Microvilli
    fingerlike extensions of plasma membrane. increase SA for absorbtion

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