US Hisory Ch. 4
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Geography of Middle Colonies
Fertile soil. Rivers were a source of transportation. Grows a lot of grain, known as the "Breadbasket Colony" Diverse population, different ethnic and religious groups. Climate of tolerance. Known as melting pot. Shorter winters, longer growing season.
Geography of Southern Colonies
Very fertile soil. Short winters, can grow crops almost all year long. Warm to hot temperatures. English first came, slaves came later.
Area that ran along the Appalachian Mountains through the far western part of the other regions. The Blackcountry's climate and resources varied, depending on the latitude. Many Scots-Irish immigrants settled there.
Name given to a trading route with three stops.
Germans built these wagons to carry their produce to town. The wagons used wide wheels suitable for dirt roads, the curved beds prevented spilling when going up and down hills. These wagons would later be important in settling in the west.
Navigation Acts. When were they passed and what were they?
- Passed in 1651.
- 1) Shipping had to be done in English ships or ships made in English colonies.
- 2) Products such as tobacco, wood, and sugar could only be sold to England or its colonies.
- 3) European imports to the colonies had to be passed through English ports
- 4) English officials were to tax any colonial goods not shipped to England.
What are artisans?
German craftspeople who became iron workers, makers of glass, furniture and kitchenware.
Economy of Middle Colonies
Cash crops, known as breadbasket colonies, gristmills, and few slaves.
What is Indigo?
A plant grew on high ground. Yields a deep blue dye.
Slaves were very angry about their loss of freedom. In September 1739, about 20 slaves gathered at the Stono River south of Charles Town. They killed many white families. It was the slaves, against plantation owners ( whites )
Many immigrant groups arrived in port cities of the Middle Colonies. The population showed alot of diversity ( variety ) One of the largest immigrant groups in the region were the Germans.
Who was Eliza Lucas, and what did she do?
A young woman who introdiced indigo as a successful plantation crop after her father sent her to supervise his South Carolina plantations when she was 17.
Geography of New England
Rocky soil, timber, fish, deep harbors ( port cities ) whales in Atlantic. Purtitans, were the English. Long winters, short growing seasons
Economy of Southern Region
Plantations grew tobacco, corn, indigo, and rice. Many slaves, but most farmers didn't own any.
What are cash crops?
Crops raised to be sold for money. Common cashcrops include, fruits, veggies, and mostly grain. Middle colonies had a long growing season, and rich soil, so they could produce cash crops.
What is subsistence farming?
It is where farmers produced just enough food for themselves, and sometimes extra for trade. Since life in New England had a short growing season, and the soil was rocky most farmers practiced subsience farming.
Economy of New England
Subsistence farming, shipping, trade, ship building, fishing, whaleing. Slavery was rare.
What are overseers?
They were men hired by planters to watch over, direct slaves. If slaves didn't appear to be doing their full share, they were whipped by overseers. On large plantations slaves worked in groups ( 20-25 ) under supervision of overseers.
What is a gristmill?
Farmers would take their crops here after they were harvested. Millers crushed the grain between heavy stones to produce flour/meal. Human and animal power fueled some mills. Most were powered by water.
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