# Midterm.txt

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 Author: prrtynpink091 ID: 41799 Filename: Midterm.txt Updated: 2010-10-12 22:38:55 Tags: korcok Folders: Description: test Show Answers:

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1. Pathos
Emotions of situation
2. Ethos
Character of speaker
3. Logos-logic
Reasoning in the persuasion
4. Truth
Property of propositins or statements. One says it is true if it is the case and if not the case it is false
5. Validity
Valid if and only if the premises are true and must lead to conclusion to be true
6. Soundness
Valid and premises are actually true in reality
7. Properties of an argument
Validity truth and soundness
8. Features of deductive argument
Syllogisms. Set of propositions and conclusion
9. Valinity
Property of arguement that supports the good arguement which makes it valid not true.
10. Syllogisms
Major premis, minor premis, and conclusion
11. Major premis
Contains middle and major term and quantifier (all, no, some) or conditional (either or, if then, when)
12. Minor premis
Contains minor and major terms. Points to one thing person or instance
13. Conclusion
Contains minor and major premis. Something that is being proved.
14. Types of syllogisms
Categorical (all, every, no), disjunctive (either or), hypothetical (if then, when, in case of).
15. Inductive arguments
No certainty, specific to general, like the \$2 bottle of wine
16. Enthymeme
Like a sylligism but fails to include one of the three parts.
17. Proposition
A decorative statement whichbis either true or false. Simple propsitions have subject and a predicate.
18. Tautology
When truth table reveals all truth values
When truth table reveals not All truth values
20. P^Q
T if only both or more are T. Conjunction~and
21. P u Q
T only if a T is present. Disjunction~or
22. PQ
T unless the horse is dancin the tuti fruti cause he cant. Implication~if, then.
23. PQ
T only when P and Q are the same. Equivalence.
24. Membership : Venn Diagram
a is apart of a circle, b is apart of a circle, and c is apart of a circle.
25. Containment : Venn Diagram
All A is B but not all B is A
26. Negation : Venn Diagram
Yellow = negation
27. Intersection : Venn Diagram
all blue is intersection
28. Union : Venn Diagram
all A and B and intersection of the two
29. Truth value
T - true as F- false; the relation of proposition to truth.
30. If and only if...truth table
equivalence, or If P and Q are the same then T
31. if, then....truth table
the horse can't dance the tuti fruti, implication
32. not...truth table
~P, or not P means the opposite of P
33. or...truth table
the v, disjunction, T if a T is present
34. and...truth table
all have to be T to be T; conjunction
35. Modus Ponens
Affirming the antecedent where ((P->Q)^P)->Q 0=F 1=T
36. Basic kinds of induction aruements
Generalization, analogy, causality
37. Generalization
• one or more examples to general case.
• (i.e. that cat has fur, that cat has fur, ...., all cats have fur.)
38. Analogy
one specific case to another specific case A<----->C
39. Causality
makes or produces another thing....cause to affect or affect to cause, usually involves a generalization about the unknown occurrence to the known occurrence.

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