DRUGS! exam 2 524

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DRUGS! exam 2 524
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2010-10-25 01:06:50
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ibhs exam 2 524 drugs and drugs.
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  1. Muscle Drugs (Bryant)
    neostigmine
    • skeletal muscle drugs
    • cholinesterase inhibitors - decrease breakdown of Ach
    • Use: treat: myasthenia gravis (muscle weakness by antibodies attacking receptors)
  2. Muscle Drugs (Bryant)
    pyridostigmine
    • skeletal muscle drugs
    • cholinesterase inhibitors - decrease breakdown of Ach
    • Use: treat: myasthenia gravis (muscle weakness by antibodies attacking receptors)
  3. Muscle Drugs (Bryant)
    ambenonium
    • skeletal muscle drugs
    • cholinesterase inhibitors - decrease breakdown of Ach
    • Use: treat: myasthenia gravis (muscle weakness by antibodies attacking receptors)
  4. Muscle Drugs (Bryant)
    verapamil
    • cardiac muscle drugs
    • calcium channel blockers - can decrease heart rate and cardiac output
    • Use: antihypertensives, anti-anginals, anti-arrhythmics
  5. Muscle Drugs (Bryant)
    diltiazem
    • cardiac muscle drugs
    • calcium channel blockers - can decrease heart rate and cardiac output
    • Use: antihypertensives, anti-anginals, anti-arrhythmics
  6. Muscle Drugs (Bryant)
    metoprolol
    • cardiac muscle drugs
    • Beta blockers - blocks affects of sympathetic nervous system stimulation
    • Use: treat: angina, hypertension, chronic heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias
  7. Muscle Drugs (Bryant)
    carvedilol
    • cardiac muscle drugs
    • Beta blockers - blocks affects of sympathetic nervous system stimulation
    • Use: treat: angina, hypertension, chronic heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias
  8. Muscle Drugs (Bryant)
    atenolol
    • cardiac muscle drugs
    • Beta blockers - blocks affects of sympathetic nervous system stimulation
    • Use: treat: angina, hypertension, chronic heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias
  9. Muscle Drugs (Bryant)
    digoxin
    • cardiac muscle drugs
    • Indirect effect: inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase, ultimately increases intracellular calcium - acts to increase contractility
    • Use: treat: heart failure
  10. Muscle Drugs (Bryant)
    losartan (Cozaar)
    • smooth muscle drugs
    • angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) - blocks vasoconstriction to lower blood pressure
    • Use: treat: hypertension
  11. Muscle Drugs (Bryant)
    valsartan (Diovan)
    • smooth muscle drugs
    • angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) - blocks vasoconstriction to lower blood pressure
    • Use: treat: hypertension
  12. Muscle Drugs (Bryant)
    candesartan (Atacand)
    • smooth muscle drugs
    • angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) - blocks vasoconstriction to lower blood pressure
    • Use: treat: hypertension
  13. Muscle Drugs (Bryant)
    nitroglycerin
    • smooth muscle drugs
    • organic nitrates/NO donors - metabolized to NO which dilates veins and coronary arteries
    • Use: treat: angina
  14. Muscle Drugs (Bryant)
    albuterol
    • smooth muscle drugs
    • bronchodilators - sympathomimetics cause bronchodilation (open up airways)
    • Use: treat: asthma
  15. Muscle Drugs (Bryant)
    terbutaline
    • smooth muscle drugs
    • bronchodilators - sympathomimetics cause bronchodilation (open up airways)
    • Use: treat: asthma
  16. Muscle Drugs (Bryant)
    salmeterol
    • smooth muscle drugs
    • bronchodilators - sympathomimetics cause bronchodilation (open up airways)
    • Use: treat: asthma
  17. Tetanus (Bryant)
    DTaP vaccine (booster every __ years)
    Unimmunized - anti-toxin ?
    • body makes antibodies to neurotoxin
    • booster every 10 years
    • anti-toxin = antibodies (will not reverse damaged already done)
  18. Muscle Drugs (Bryant)
    dantrolene
    • muscle relaxant that dissociates excitation-contraction coupling
    • Use: patients with: taking general anesthetics
  19. Muscle Drugs (Bryant)
    nondepolarizing
    • skeletal muscle drugs
    • neuromuscular blocking drugs - antagonist at Ach receptor, prevents Ach from binding, prevent depolarization and action potential
    • Use: adjuncts during general anesthesia to facilitate tracheal intubation and optimize surgical conditions
  20. Muscle Drugs (Bryant)
    Tubocurarine
    • skeletal muscle drugs
    • cholinesterase inhibitors
    • reverse neuromuscular blocking drugs
  21. Muscle Drugs (Bryant)
    cisatracurium
    • skeletal muscle drugs
    • cholinesterase inhibitors
    • reverse neuromuscular blocking drugs
  22. Muscle Drugs (Bryant)
    depolarizing
    • skeletal muscle drugs
    • neuromuscular blocking drugs - acts as a depolarizing agonist at Ach receptor;
    • phase 1: it binds to receptor and causes depolarization, not metabolized effectively at synapse, so membranes remain depolarized and unresponsive to subsequent impulses (depolarizing block)
    • phase 2: acts as if channel is in prolonged closed state (desensitized)
  23. Muscle Drugs (Bryant)
    succinylcholine (the ONLY one approved in U.S.)
    • skeletal muscle drugs
    • cholinesterase inhibitors
    • reverse neuromuscular blocking drugs at PHASE 2 only
  24. Muscle Drugs (Bryant)
    Diazepam
    • skeletal muscle drugs
    • spasmolytics - act to decrease muscle spasms and increase muscle tone
  25. Muscle Drugs (Bryant)
    baclofen
    • skeletal muscle drugs
    • spasmolytics - act to decrease muscle spasms and increase muscle tone
  26. Muscle Drugs (Richard)
    Testosterone and related substances
    • prohibited: IN and OUT of competition
    • #1) anabolic androgenic steroids
    • 1. stimulate protein synthesis = muscle growth
    • 2. stimulate hematopoiesis = RBC production (for oxygen)
    • Use: patients with: atrophy (due to illness or injury), anemia, hooves (vet meds)
    • Side effects: altered moods, acne, alopecia (loss of hair), genital shrinkage (testicles no longer need to make testosterone thus gets smaller)
  27. Muscle Drugs (Richard)
    growth hormone
    • prohibited: IN and OUT of competition
    • #2) Peptide hormones + growth factors
    • 1. cell growth and proliferation
  28. Muscle Drugs (Richard)
    chorionic gonadotropin + luteinizing hormone
    • prohibited: IN and OUT of competition
    • #2) Peptide hormones + growth factors
    • 1. cell growth and proliferation
  29. Muscle Drugs (Richard)
    insulin
    • prohibited: IN and OUT of competition
    • #2) Peptide hormones + growth factors
    • 1. cell growth and proliferation
  30. Muscle Drugs (Richard)
    EPO + EPO stimulants
    (Erythropoietin)
    • prohibited: IN and OUT of competition
    • #2) Peptide hormones + growth factors
    • 1. cell growth and proliferation
  31. Muscle Drugs (Richard)
    albuterol
    • prohibited: IN and OUT of competition
    • #3) Beta-2 agonists
    • 1. bronchodilation (allows more oxygen through increased size of airways)
  32. Muscle Drugs (Richard)
    salmeterol
    • prohibited: IN and OUT of competition
    • #3) Beta-2 agonists
    • 1. bronchodilation (allows more oxygen through increased size of airways)
  33. Muscle Drugs (Richard)
    tamoxifen
    • prohibited: IN and OUT of competition
    • #4) Estrogen receptor modulators (both activity of antagonist and agonist)
    • 1. counter side effects of anabolic steroids
    • Use: patients with: breast cancer
  34. Muscle Drugs (Richard)
    clomiphene
    • prohibited: IN and OUT of competition
    • #4) Estrogen receptor modulators (both activity of antagonist and agonist)
    • 1. counter side effects of anabolic steroids
    • Use: patients with: PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome)
  35. Muscle Drugs (Richard)
    furosemide
    • prohibited: IN and OUT of competition
    • #5) Diuretics or plasma expanders
    • 1. diuretic (lose/decrease fluid in system)
    • 2. mask drug use, weight loss
  36. Muscle Drugs (Richard)
    spironolactone
    • prohibited: IN and OUT of competition
    • #5) Diuretics or plasma expanders
    • 1. diuretic (lose/decrease fluid in system)
    • 2. mask drug use, weight loss
  37. Muscle Drugs (Richard)
    dextran
    • prohibited: IN and OUT of competition
    • #5) Diuretics or plasma expanders
    • 1. expander (dilute/increase fluid in system)
    • 2. mask drug use, weight loss
  38. Muscle Drugs (Richard)
    mannitol
    • prohibited: IN and OUT of competition
    • #5) Diuretics or plasma expanders
    • 1. expander (dilute/increase fluid in system)
    • 2. mask drug use, weight loss
  39. Muscle Drugs (Richard)
    amphetamine
    • prohibited: IN competition only
    • #1) Stimulants
    • 1. increase endurance, focus, stamina
    • Use: patients with: ADHD
  40. Muscle Drugs (Richard)
    methylphenidate
    • prohibited: IN competition only
    • #1) Stimulants
    • 1. increase endurance, focus, stamina
    • Use: patients with: ADHD
  41. Muscle Drugs (Richard)
    ephedrine
    • prohibited: IN competition only
    • #1) Stimulants
    • 1. increase endurance, focus, stamina
    • Use: patients with: ADHD
  42. Muscle Drugs (Richard)
    oxycodone
    • prohibited: IN competition only
    • #2) Narcotics
    • 1. suppress pain
    • Use: patients with: tooth pain
  43. Muscle Drugs (Richard)
    fentanyl
    • prohibited: IN competition only
    • #2) Narcotics
    • 1. suppress pain
    • Use: patients with: tooth pain
  44. Muscle Drugs (Richard)
    morphine
    • prohibited: IN competition only
    • #2) Narcotics
    • 1. suppress pain
    • Use: patients with: tooth pain
  45. Muscle Drugs (Richard)
    prednisone
    • prohibited: IN competition only
    • #3) Glucocorticosteroids
    • 1. suppress inflammation and pain
  46. Muscle Drugs (Richard)
    dexamethasone
    • prohibited: IN competition only
    • #3) Glucocorticosteroids
    • 1. suppress inflammation and pain
  47. Muscle Drugs (Richard)
    cortisol
    • prohibited: IN competition only
    • #3) Glucocorticosteroids
    • 1. suppress inflammation and pain
  48. Muscle Drugs (Richard)
    tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
    • prohibited: IN competition only
    • #4) Cannabinoids (Marijuana)
    • 1. suppress emesis (vomiting) and pain
    • Use: patients with: glaucoma
  49. Muscle Drugs (Richard)
    atenolol
    • prohibited: IN competition only (18 specific sports)
    • #5) Beta-blockers
    • 1. increase stability (shake less from nervousness or feeling under the pressure)
  50. Muscle Drugs (Richard)
    bisoprolol
    • prohibited: IN competition only (18 specific sports)
    • #5) Beta-blockers
    • 1. increase stability (shake less form nervousness or feeling under the pressure)
  51. Muscle Drugs (Richard)
    metoprolol
    • prohibited: IN competition only (18 specific sports)
    • #5) Beta-blockers
    • 1. increase stability (shake less from nervousness or feeling under the pressure)
  52. Muscle Drugs (Richard)
    propanolol
    • prohibited: IN competition only (18 specific sports)
    • #5) Beta-blockers
    • 1. increase stability (shake less from nervousness or feeling under the pressure)
  53. Muscle Drugs (Richard)
    Budweiser
    • prohibited: IN competition only (8 specific sports)
    • #6) Alcohol
    • 1. sedating (calm nerves) BUT impairs motor ability
  54. Muscle Drugs (Richard)
    Pabst
    • prohibited: IN competition only (8 specific sports)
    • #6) Alcohol
    • 1. sedating (calm nerves) BUT impairs motor ability
  55. Muscle Drugs (Richard)
    Miller Lite
    • prohibited: IN competition only (8 specific sports)
    • #6) Alcohol
    • 1. sedating (calm nerves) BUT impairs motor ability
  56. Nervous System Drugs (Richard)
    Insecticides
    • irreversible (mostly) = toxin
    • Inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase
  57. Nervous System Drugs (Richard)
    Sarin nerve gas
    • irreversible (mostly) = toxin
    • Inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase
  58. Nervous System Drugs (Richard)
    Aricept (donepezil)
    • reversible = medications
    • Inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase
    • Use: patients with: Alzheimers
  59. Nervous System Drugs (Richard)
    cocaine
    block reuptake transporters (Dopamine, Norepinephrine, Serotonin Transporters)
  60. Nervous System Drugs (Richard)
    buproprion (Wellbutrin, Zyban)
    block reuptake transporters (Dopamin, Norepinephrine, Serotonin Transporters)
  61. Nervous System Drugs (Richard)
    atomoxetine (Straterra)
    • block specific reuptake transporter - Norepinephrine Transporter (NET)
    • Anti-ADHD
  62. Nervous System Drugs (Richard)
    paroxetine (Paxil) [SSRI]
    • block specific reuptake transporter - Serotonin Transporter (SERT)
    • Anti-depressant
    • Use: patients with: depression, OCD
  63. Nervous System Drugs (Richard)
    amphetamines (Adderal)/ "Meth" amphetamines
    • reverses reuptake transporters (DAT, NET, SERT) = efflux
    • Efflux of dopamine, NE, serotonin from neuronal vesicles
    • Efflux into synapse via reuptake transporters
    • Increases dopamine, NE, serotonin levels in brain
  64. Nervous System Drugs (Richard)
    MAO (monoAmine Oxidase) inhibiting drugs
    • doesn't allow for inactivation of NTs by oxidation.
    • Use: patients with: depression
  65. Nervous System Drugs (Nickola)
    Plasmapheresis
    • wash your plasma to get inflammatory antibodies stuff out of there
    • Use: patients with: Guillain-Barre Syndrome
  66. Nervous System Drugs (Nickola)
    glucocorticoids, Interferon-Beta, muscle relaxants
    • calm immune system, stop the twitches or tetani
    • Use: patients with: Multiple Sclerosis
  67. Nervous System Drugs (Bryant)
    Ketamine
    • NMDA channel blockers
    • general anesthetic; dissociative anesthetic
  68. Nervous System Drugs (Bryant)
    Phencyclidine piperdine (PCP)
    • NMDA channel blockers
    • causes euphoria, hallucinations, hostility, violent behavior
    • Use: patients with: (chronic) memory loss, cognitive impairment
  69. Nervous System Drugs (Bryant)
    Methadone (top 200)
    • NMDA channel blockers
    • some affinity for NMDA receptor, but MAINLY an opioid antagonist
    • Use: patients with: Opiate addiction
  70. Nervous System Drugs (Bryant)
    memantine (NAMENDA - top 200)
    • NMDA channel blockers
    • used to slow progression of Alzheimer's Disease
  71. Nervous System Drugs (Bryant)
    alprazolam
    • Anxiolytic
    • Benzodiazepines (GABAa potentiation- increases RATE of channel opening)
    • Used for:
    • bipolar disorder (manic episodes), anxiety disorders, panic disorders, insomnia
    • anticonvulsant, antiplasticity
  72. Nervous System Drugs (Bryant)
    lorazepam
    • Anxiolytic
    • Benzodiazepines (GABAa potentiation- increases RATE of channel opening)
    • Used for:
    • bipolar disorder (manic episodes), anxiety disorders, panic disorders, insomnia
    • anticonvulsant, antiplasticity
  73. Nervous System Drugs (Bryant)
    diazepam
    • Anxiolytic
    • Benzodiazepines (GABAa potentiation- increases RATE of channel opening)
    • Used for:
    • bipolar disorder (manic episodes), anxiety disorders, panic disorders, insomnia
    • anticonvulsant, antiplastiplasticity
  74. Nervous System Drugs (Bryant)
    phenobarbital (top 200)
    • Barbiturates (GABAa potentiation- increases DURATION of channel opening)
    • anticonvulsant, sedative/hypnotic
  75. Nervous System Drugs (Bryant)
    Anxiolytics
    • Benzodiazepines (most commonly prescribed)
    • Antidepressants, Beta-adreneric blockers
    • Buspirone (serotonin receptor agonist)
  76. Nervous System Drugs (Bryant)
    zolpidem (Ambien)
    • Non-benzodiazepine (top 200)
    • sleep promotion via GABAa potentiation
  77. Nervous System Drugs (Bryant)
    eszopiclone (Lunesta)
    • Non-benzodiazepine (top 200)
    • sleep promotion via GABAa potentiation
  78. Nervous System Drugs (Bryant)
    liquid ecstasy
    • recreational drug- rave scene
    • reduce anxiety, euphoria
    • GHB (Gamma hydroxybuterate)
  79. Nervous System Drugs (Bryant)
    date-rape drug
    • recreational drug- bar scene
    • induces stupor, reduces memory
    • GHB (Gamma hydroxybuterate)
  80. Nervous System Drugs (Bryant)
    GHB in the Gym scene
    • recreational drug
    • prolonged sleep causes INCREASED GH release
  81. Nervous System Drugs (Bryant)
    Strychnine
    • BLOCK glycine receptor (glycine inhibitor)
    • from plant
    • used as rat poison
    • causes loss of negative control and causes convulsions and rigidity (lose control over muscles)
  82. Nervous System Drugs (Bryant)
    Tetanus toxin
    • INHIBIT glycine release
    • from bacteria (deep puncture wound)
    • used to promote spasticity and tetanus
  83. Nervous System Drugs (Richard)
    loratadine (Claritin)
    • H1 Antagonism
    • antihistimine medication for allergies
    • low sedation (low entry to CNS)
  84. Nervous System Drugs (Richard)
    cetirizine (Zyrtec)
    • H1 Antagonism
    • antihistimine medication for allergies
    • medium sedation (medium entry to CNS)
  85. Nervous System Drugs (Richard)
    diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
    • H1 Antagonism
    • antihistimine medication for allergies
    • high sedation (high entry to CNS)
  86. Nervous System Drugs (Richard)
    cimetidine (Tagamet)
    • H2 Antagonism
    • heartburn medication
    • note: very high doses may result in erectile dysfunction
  87. Nervous System Drugs (Richard)
    ranitidine (Zantac)
    • H2 Antagonism
    • heartburn medication
    • note: very high doses may result in erectile dysfunction
  88. Nervous System Drugs (Richard)
    Amitriptyline
    • inhibits reuptake transporters (NE, serotonin)
    • increases NE/serotonin levels in brain
    • Anti- depression
  89. Nervous System Drugs (Richard)
    phenylephrine (Sudafed PE)
    • Adrenergic receptors: Alpha-1 receptors (blood vessels) Agonism (vasoconstriction)
    • Use: patients with: decongestant
  90. Nervous System Drugs (Richard)
    prazosin (Minipress)
    • Adrenergic receptors: Alpha-1 receptors (blood vessels) Antagonism (vasodilation)
    • Use: patients with: hypertension
  91. Nervous System Drugs (Richard)
    clonidine (Catapres)
    • Adrenergic receptors: Alpha-2 (brain, adrenal gland) Agonism (autoreceptor = decrease NE release)
    • Use: patients with: hypertension
  92. Nervous System Drugs (Richard)
    dobutamine
    • Adrenergic receptors: Beta-1 (heart) Agonism (heart stimulation)
    • Use: patients with: heart failure
  93. Nervous System Drugs (Richard)
    metoprolol (Lopressor)
    • Adrenergic receptors: Beta-1 (heart) Antagonism (heart inhibition)
    • Use: patients with: hypertension
  94. Nervous System Drugs (Richard)
    albuterol (Proventil)
    • Adrenergic receptors: Beta-2 (lungs) Agonism (airway-relaxation)
    • Use: patients with: asthma
  95. Nervous System Drugs (Richard)
    MDMA (ecstasy)
    • positive mood
    • reverses reuptake transporters: increases serotonin levels in brain and plasma
  96. Nervous System Drugs (Richard)
    fenfluramine
    • loss of appetite
    • reverses reuptake transporters: increases serotonin levels in brain and plasma
  97. Nervous System Drugs (Richard)
    buspirone (top 200)
    • 5-HT1A (CNS) - [Autoreceptor/heteroreceptor], Agonism
    • anxiolytic
    • decrease release of glutamine = less anxiety
  98. Nervous System Drugs (Richard)
    sumatriptan
    • 5-HT1B/1D (CNS) - [Autoreceptor/heteroreceptor] Agonism
    • anti-migraines
    • vasoconstriction in CNS
  99. Nervous System Drugs (Richard)
    LSD
    • 5-HT2A Agonism
    • general excitation in CNS
    • hallucinogens (too much activity)
  100. Nervous System Drugs (Richard)
    mushrooms (the bad kind)
    • 5-HT2A Agonism
    • general excitation in CNS
    • hallucinogens (too much activity)
  101. Nervous System Drugs (Richard)
    olanzapine (Zyprexa)
    • 5-HT2A Antagonism
    • note: inhibits dopamine receptors aslo = side effects
    • anti-psychotic
  102. Nervous System Drugs (Richard)
    ondansetron
    • 5-HT3 Antagonism
    • anti-emetic (inhibit vomiting via receptors on vagus nerve in GI tract and receptors in brain that are accessible to circulating serotonin)

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