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What are Histones?
Proteins that help with the organization of chromosomes.
DNA with histones are known as the
What process do prokaryotes use to do cell division?
Binary Fission, a type of Asexual reproduction
What are some descriptions of Prokaryotic daughter cells?
They share DNA that is exactly the same as their parents.
Prokaryotic DNA is (linear/circular)
Eukaryotic Cells do cell division through
Mitosis and Meiosis
Asexual Eukaryotes used ______ for reproduction, while _____ Eukaryotes use _______ for growth and repair.
Asexual Eukaryotes used Mitosis for reproduction, while mutilcellular Eukaryotes use Mitosis for growth and repair.
Multicellular Eukaryotes undergo ______ to sexually reproduce ______ (haploid cells).
Multicellular Eukaryotes undergo Meiosis to sexually reproduce gametes (haploid cells).
A Chromosome is
A Chromosome is a single DNA Molecule coiled around Histones
Homologous Chromosomes are
Paired Chromosomes, that are similar.
They share the same centromere position, and the same allele position.
Before Cell Division each chromosome is ___ giving the chromosome identical _____ _____, which are joined at the centromere.
Before Cell Division each chromosome is Duplicated giving the chromosome identical Sister Chromatids, which are joined at the centromere.
Chromosome Duplication occurs
....before Cell Division
What moves chromosomes within Cell Division?
The Spindle Aparatus, which is made out of microtubules.
Place the Cell Cycle in Correct Order..
G1 - G0 - S - G2 - M
Which Cell Cycle does the Synthesis of DNA occur?
Which Cell Cycle does the Preparation of needed organelles occur?
Which Cell cycle do the cells fulfill their purpose?
Which Cell Cycle does the Cell never Divide?
G0 (null) phase
What occurs in S Phase?
DNA Synthesis where the chromosomes are replicated, and sister chromatids appear.
What Cell Division occurs in M - Phase?
Mitosis and Meiosis
Describe the what occurs in M phase of Mitosis
Prophase -- chromatin coils up, the Nucleolus and Nuclear Envelope Dissolves, and the Spindle Apparatus appears.
ProMetaphase -- Organizes itself
Metaphase -- chromosomes are completely coiled, and line up at the equatorial plate, Spindle apparatuses attach themselves to the chromosomes
Anaphase -- spindle appartuses pull halves of the chromosomes apart, pulling them towards the poles of the cell
Telophase -- 2 groups of Chromosomes at the poles, the nuclear envelope reappears and the cytoplasm splits
Cytokinese (during Telophase) -- splitting of the cell
What organelles help with cytokinesis in Plant Cells?
Vesicles, which are made of plasma membrane and cellulose.
In Plant cells the plasma membrane and the cell wall (vesicles) help with cytokinesis
The daughter cells in Meiosis I are ___ genetically ___ to the ___ ___ or each other.
The daughter cells in Meiosis I are not genetically Identical to the Parent cells or each other.
Describe the Stages in Meiosis I
Prophase I -- homologous Pairs line up by shape & size, forming a Tetrad (where a synapsis is located and crossingover occurs at the chiasmata), Crossing over produces genetic recombination (new combination of Alleles) resulting in Genetic Variation
Prometaphase I -- Crossing over still occurs, and the nuclear envelope breaks down.
Metaphase I -- homologs are together at equatorial plate, spindle fiber attach to one pair, Independent assortment occurs where homologous pairs line up independent of other homologous pairs.
Anaphase I -- homologs are pulled apart, sister Chromatids remain attached at centromere
Telophase I and Cytokinesis -- Cell Divides, uncoiling of chromosomes into chromatin, chromatids remain attached, you have two Daughter cells with haploid amount of chromosomes.
What is difference in the chromosomes within Meiosis I and Meiosis II?
The chromosomes in Meiosis I are double stranded, from the replication of DNA in S-Phase.
What occurs between Meiosis I and Meiosis II?
Interkinesis, which is a short pause.
What is the difference between Prophase I, and Prophase in Mitosis?
In Prophase I homologs pair up together, while in Mitosis they do not.
Meiosis II is similar to Mitosis, except for...
...you start out with two Haploid Cells, which have gone through Meiosis I, and from Meiosis II you get two Haploid Daughter cells from each beginning Haploid cell. A total of Four Daughter cells at the end of Meiosis II. So SAME number of Chromosomes, but still haploid cells at end.
What is the difference between Homolog and homologous Pairs?
homologs are the two chromosomes within a homologous pair.
Haplontic Life cycle consists of ___ mature organisms. They produce gametes that are still ___. After fertilization forms a ___ zygote, which immediately goes into ___ to form what is called ___. Spores are ____ cells that go through ____ to form Mature organisms, and the cycle starts again.
Haplontic Life cycle consists of HAPLOID mature organisms. They produce gametes that are still HAPLOID. After fertilization forms a DIPLOID zygote, which immediately goes into MEIOSIS to form what is called a SPORE. Spores are HAPLOID cells that go through MITOSIS to form Mature organisms, and the cycle starts again.
Most Plants and some protists display Alternation of Generations, where gametes do not form after ___, but from ____ cells called ____. These spores divide by ____ to form a haploid life stage called the ____. ____ are formed by ____, and they fertilize to form a ____ zygote. This Zygote divides by ____, to form a ____ ____. After the sporophyte goes through ____, ____ ____ form and the cycle starts again.
Most Plants and some protists display Alternation of Generations, where gametes do not form after MEIOSIS, but from HAPLOID cells called SPORES. These spores divide by MITOSIS to form a haploid life stage called the GAMETOPHYTE. GAMETES are formed by MITOSIS, and they fertilize to form a DIPLOID zygote. This Zygote divides by MITOSIS, to form a DIPLOID SPOROPHYTE. After the sporophyte goes through MEIOSIS, HAPLOID SPORES form and the cycle starts again.
The Haploid Gametophyte are what kinds of Cells? (single celled or multicellular)
Diplonic Life Cycles is where, WHAT kind of organism is categorized? (in other words what are you)
Dogs and Horses represents kinds of ____ ____.
The belief of Blending inheritance was does not hold up in the real world because
There are variances in appearance among the same species, and some characteristics can skip a generation.
Law of Inheritance states that
Also called the Law of Random Segregation, States that factors from mom and dad are inherited equally. And some "factors" can dominate the other.
Second Law of Inheritance states...
Also called the Law of Independent Assortment (1:2:2:4:1:2:1:2:1, or 9:3:3:1), where "factor" are inherited independently from the other factors within Meiosis.
What is the Probability of an AaBb x AaBB, cross to have the offspring with AaBb genotypes?
1/4 probability, since the probability to get Aa is 1/2, and Bb is 1/2.
1/2 * 1/2 = 1/4
What is the ratio of a monohybrid cross with purebreed parents?
What are other NonMendelian, inheritance patterns?
Multiple Alleles, ex. different Bunny fur Colors.
- Varying Degree of Dominance (complete, incomplete, codominance)
- Complete Dominance, ex. phenotype of Aa is the same as AA, where A is completely dominant
- Incomplete Dominace, ex. there is an intermediate phenotype, 1:2:1 phenotype EX. pink flowers
- Codominace, ex. phenotype of Aa expresses both alleles EX. ABO blood or black and white cow.
Epistasis, where there is a gene that overrides another gene, ex. dog fur B_E_ (black), bbE_ (choco), and _ _ee (Yellow)
Environmental Influences, ex. a bunny's genotype may code for white ears but the ears can be black because of the environment.
Polygenic inheritance, is where most phenotype form a bell shaped curve. ex, human height, where most people are in the middle then at the extremes.
Were their linked genes in Mendel's Peas?
Yes, some genes that looked as if they independently assorted were actually really far apart where the recombinant frequencies were larger.
Some alleles do not assort ___. Some genes on a given chromosome constitutes what is called a ____ group. Humans display __ linked characters that are located on the ___ chromosome.
Some alleles do not assort independently, because they are on the same chromosome. Some genes on a given chromosome constitutes what is called a linkage group. Humans display sex linked characters that are located on the X chromosome.