Art History - Greek
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Funerary Vase (Krater), from the Dipylon Cemetery, Athens, ca. 750 – 700 BCE, ceramic, 42-5/8” high
- Ground Plan of Greek Temple
- Peripteral. Columns all around, approachable from any side, symmetrical.
- Colonade - row of columns.
- Worship takes place outside temple, cult statue in cella usually off limits.
- Elevation of Doric and Ionic Greek Temple
- Doric - Flutes.
- Ionic - Usually more slender, capital is sculpted, rests on a base.
- Corinthian - Capital highly sculpted (Acanthus leaves) Can be on a platform.
- Temple of Hera I, ca. 550 – 540 BCE, Paestum, Italy
- (Heraeon. )
- Temple of Hera II, Paestum, Italy, ca. 470 – 460 BCE
- (80 years after 1st temple)
- Pediment sculpture from the Temple of Aphaia at Aegina, ca. 500-480 BCE
- Logistical problems with pediment worked out -- each statue made free-standing, then placed.
- Aphaia - fertility goddess, minor deity.
- Kouros (Youth), marble ca. 600 BCE, 72” high
- -Daedalic Wig
- -Stiff pose-early Greeks thought this was naturalistic
- Kroisos, Kouros from Anavysos, marble with traces of paint, ca. 530 BCE, 76” high
- -This was a grave marker
- -Many were painted
Kore in Dorian Peplos, found on the Acropolis, Athens, marble, ca. 530 BCE, 48” high
- -Female counterpart of Kouros; much more restrained
- -Were only votives (a lot found @ the Athenian Acropolis)
- -One arm extended- was probably holding something out (votive offering)
- -Daedalic wig mixed w/hair
- -Was brightly painted, probably w/patterns
- Kore found on the Akropolis, Athens, possibly made by an artist from Chios, marble, ca. 520 BCE, 22” high
- -Wears chiton, wool limation
- -Starting to see drapery in Greek art
- -Same archaic smile
- Exekias, Achilles and Ajax Playing Dice, Black-figure amphora, ca. 540 BCE, height 24”
- -Black figure painting: pot made on the wheel, painted with slip, put into the kiln, everything turns orange. Then put in green wood to the kiln, caused smoke, turned black. After figures are painted, designs carved w/stylus.
- -Vessels would often be signed (sign of pride)
- -Patter at top: palmettes-orientalizing influence. Intricate patterning.
- -iconography: Ajax and Achilles allegory for the war about to happen...Achilles dies in Trojan war, Ajax commits suicide.
- -"The Moment Before" - common theme
Euphronios (painter) and Euxitheos (potter), Death of Sarpedon, red-figure calyx krater, ca. 515 BCE, 18” high
- -Sarpedon=brother of King Minos
- -foreshortening-Sarpedon is larger than other figures
- -Winged figures-Hypnos (Sleep) and Thanatos (Death)
- -Behind them=Hermes angles of wings lead eye to center.
Polykleitos, Doryphoros (Spear Bearer), Roman copy after bronze original of ca. 450-440 BCE, 83” high
-Polykleitos wrote Canon, which was about how to portray the human figure.
Apollo with Battling Lapiths and Centaurs, reconstruction of the west pediment, Temple of Zeus at Olympia, marble, ca. 470 – 460 BCE,
- -Pedimental sculpture
- -Lapiths vs. Centaurs: Lapiths invite Centaurs to banquet to try to make peace, Centaurs try raping Lapith women, fight breaks out.
Athena, Herakles and Atlas, Metope relief sculpture, Temple of Zeus, Olympia,
marble, ca. 460 BCE, height 63”
-Herakles' 11th Labor-Apples from the garden of Hesperides (Hesperides=creatures that guarded the garden) Herakles holds the world while Atlas collects apples, Atlas doesn't want world back. Herakles tricks him into holding it again.
Kritian Boy, found on the Akropolis, Athens, marble, ca. 480 BCE, Height 46”
- -We think the artist's name was Kritios. Is a Kourous, represents the perfected human figure
- -No archaic smile, no headpiece
- -Contrapposto-weight shift
- -Buried after the Persians destroyed the Acropolis
Charioteer, from the Sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi, ca. 470, bronze, copper (lips and lashes), silver (hand), onyx (eyes), 71” high
- -Chariot racing - prestigious sporting event.
- -Put together in several pieces
- -Bronze allows a lot of detail (esp. notice the feet)
- -Drapery-chiton, invokes a fluted column
- -materials used to emphasize realism
Myron, Diskobolos (Discus Thrower), Roman marble copy after bronze original of
ca. 450 BCE, 71” high
-When Romans conquored Greeks, took a lot of artwork back to Rome and copied it
The Acropolis of Athens
- -Primary purpose: religious shrine
- -There is evidence it was occupied during Neolithic period
- -Mycineans occupied it
- -Ottoman Turks conquored; opressive regime
- -1687: War Turks vs. Venetians, Venetians fired rocket into Acropolis
- -100 years later, Lord Elgin makes a deal w/Sultan of Athens to take sculptures, has to sell sculptures to British govt to pay his death
- -up on a hill=natural defense
Acropolis Ground Plan, 400 BCE
- -Not axial, buildings not parallel
- -Chalcoteca-battery (place for guns, gunpowder, etc.)
Reconstruction of the Acropolis, 5th century BCE
- Athena - 4 aspects:
- Promachos (warrior)
- Parthenos (virgin)
- Nike (bringer of victory)
- Ergane (protector of artesans)
-Panathenaiac Procession every 4 years--citizens march up steps to Athena statue, present new garments
Iktinos and Kallikrates, the Parthenon, 437-432 BCE
- -Iktinos and Kallikrates = architects (master masons)
- -No straight lines in the Parthenon
Lapith and Centaur, metopes from the south side of the Parthenon, marble, ca 440 BCE, 56” high
- -90 metopes in all, all depict the 4 stories ( Lapiths vs. Centaurs, Gods vs. Giants, Greeks vs. Amazons, and Trojan War.)
- -Chiaroscuro-light and dark
-Marshals and Young Women, detail of the Procession, from the Ionic frieze on the east side of the Parthenon, ca. 447 – 432 BCE, 42” high
- -Some static qualities
- -low-relief, no suggestion of wind
- -Vertical clothing similar to fluted columns
Three Goddesses, from the east pediment of the Parthenon,
ca. 447 – 432 BCE, marble, over life-size. pediment length, 90 feet
- -Quintessential classical treatment of the human form
- -"Clinging drapery" or "wet drapery" style
- -Deep folds, fabric gathering in places
Phidias, Athena Parthenos, wooden core, gold and ivory, 40 feet tall
- -Phidias=close friend of Pericles. Ultimately banished from Athens
- -40 ft high. Helmet-4 horse chariot
- -Chryselefantine-gold and ivory (core is probably made of wood and stone)
- -Phidias also credited w/statue of Zeus
The Erechtheion, Acropolis, Athens
- -King Erechtheious
- -Not typical temple-asymmetrical, conforms to levels of land.
- -Ionic order, continuous frieze.
- -Porch of Maidens - caryatids (female form used as a column). Symbol of Greece. Male counterpart=Atlas
Mnesikles, The Propylaea, 437-432 BCE
- -Huge doric columns
- -Space on top = pinakotheke (painting gallery. 1st museum)
- -Temple of Athena Nike at top right
Nike, from the balustrade of the Temple of Athena Nike, Akropolis, Athens, ca. 410-405 BCE, marble, 42” high
-Late Classical, 1st example of new attitude toward deities (more humanized, doing everyday things)
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