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2010-10-13 00:58:03
Biology Cell Respiration

Cell Respiration notes
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  1. Cellular Respiration definition:
    Process by which mitochondria breaks down food molecules (glucose) to produce ATP
  2. Step One
  3. Step Two
    Krebs cycle
  4. Intermediate step
    2 Pyruvic Acids enter Mitochondrion; turns them into 2 Acetyl CoA
  5. Step 3
    Electron Transport Chain
  6. Formula of Cellular Respiration:
    C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2 O + ENERGY
  7. Three stages of cellular respiration:
    Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, ETC
  8. Glycolysis: Aerobic or anaerobic?
  9. Krebs cycle: aerobic or anaerobic?
  10. ETC: aerobic or anaerobic?
  11. Glycolysis definition:
    a series of chemical reactions in the cytoplasm of a cell that break down glucose (a 6 carbon sugar) into two molecules of pyruvic acid (a 3 carbon compound)
  12. # ATP from Glycolysis
    2 ATP produced
  13. location of Glycolysis:
    happens in the cytoplasm
  14. location of Krebs cycle:
    happens in the mitochondria
  15. location of electron transport chain:
    happens in the INNER membrane of the mitochondria
  16. What happens in glycolysis
    breaks down glucose into pyruvic acid
  17. what happens in krebs cycle
    energizes electron carriers for use in the electron transport chain
  18. what happens in the electron transport chain
    electron is released from NADH, hops across transport proteins sending tons of H+ out of membrane, and when a H+ is forced back, ATP is formed from ADP
  19. ATP count from krebs cycle
    2 ATP produced
  20. ATP count from ETC
    32 ATP produced
  21. Fermentation: aerobic or anaerobic?
  22. No oxygen=
    cellular respiration won't happen; ETC comes to a halt
  23. Two types of fermentation:
    Lactic Acid Fermentation and Alcoholic Fermentation
  24. Results for each glucose(2 acetyl coA molecules) that enter the Krebs cycle:
    4CO2 released, 6 NADH produced (NAD+ acts as an electron carrier and gains an H+) 2 ATP is produced, 2 FADH2 is formed (FAD+ acts as an electron carrier and gains two H+)
  25. NAD+ turns into NADH
    when it accepts two electrons
  26. H2O is formed in the
    ETC when oxygen is combined with hydrogen in the second to last protein
  27. ATP Synthase is
    the last protein in the ETC; it makes ATP by binding free phosphates to ADP when H+ comes back through
  28. Alcoholic fermentation produces:
    2 CO2 and 2 ethanol molecules; used by yeast and bacteria
  29. Lactic acid fermentation produces:
    2 lactate molecules, which go from the muscles to the liver to be turned into pyruvic acid again
  30. Lactic acid fermentation flow:
    glucose -> Pyruvic acid -> Lactic Acid + 2 ATP
  31. Alcoholic fermentation flow
    glucose -> pyruvic acid -> CO2 + alcohol + 2ATP
  32. cellular respiration flow
    glucose -> pyruvic acid -> CO2 + water + 36 ATP