Kin300 Stats

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Kin300 Stats
2010-10-13 01:26:11

Stats definition and Equations
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  1. ________ is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection, analysis, interpretation or explanation, and presentation of data. Used for making informed decisions.
  2. All members of a specified group is a ______
  3. A subset of a population is a ...
  4. ___________ __________ are used to describe the basic characteristics of the data in a study. Expressed in numerical and/or graphical form. They form the basis of virtually every quantitative analysis of data.
    Descriptive statistics
  5. _______ ________ are used to draw conclusions about a population based on information contained in a sample. Information is obtained from a sample and generalized o a population.
    Inferential statistics
  6. A value, or quantity, that represents a characteristic of a population such as population mean or standard deviation is a...
  7. A value, or quantity, that represents a characteristic of a sample such as the sample mean or standard deviation is a...
  8. Something that can take on more than one value is a ...
  9. the various values that a variable may assume (i.e. red, white, blue // 1, 2, 3 )
    "levels" of a variable
  10. A variable whose levels are described numerically (i.e., termperature, %body fat, and time)
    quantitative variable
  11. A variable whose leels are described with words or phrases i.e. gender or size
    qualitative variable
  12. A quantitative variable that can be reduced to an infinite number of possible values, depending on the accuracy of the measuring instrument
    continuous variable
  13. A variable, either qualitative or quantitative, with a finite number of values that cannot be subdivided meaningfully. i.e., heart rate, IQ, color
    Discrete variable
  14. Variables are cateforical, qualitative, and discrete in nature. i.e. brand of shoes, Social Security numbers, gender
    Nominal Level of measurement
  15. Variables are categorical and discrete in nature. Ranked in order i.e. finish position in race and t-shirt size
    ordinal level of measurement
  16. Variables at this level may be quantitative or qualitative, discrete or continuous. Posses ordinal characteristics with added of equal intervals between levels. shoe size, temperature, IQ
    Interval Level of Measurement
  17. __________variables possess all of the characteristics of interval level variables with the added characteristic of a measurement baseline. Baseline as a zero point on the measurement scale.. height, weight, distance
    ratio level of measurement
  18. A type of research that may have limited direct application but in which the researcher has careful control of the conditions
    Basic Research
  19. A type of research that has direct value to practitioners but in which the researcher has limited control over the research setting;; longer study
    Applied Research
  20. An unscientific method of problem solving in which people cling to certain beliefs regardless of the lack of supporting evidence
  21. An unscientific method of problem solving using intuitive knowledge or common sense
  22. An unscientific method of problem solving in which reference to an authority figure is used as a source of knowledge
  23. an unscientific method ofproblem solving in which we derive knowledge through reasoning
    rationalistic method
  24. the outcome measure; the cariable that is measured in a research study.It is free to vary, and is affected by, or "dependent" on , the actions of others
    Dependent variable
  25. A variable that you identify as having a potential influence on your outcome measure. this might be a variable that you control
    independent variable
  26. Variable that is held constant, or controled, at one level thoughout an experiment.
    Control Variable
  27. undesirable variables that influence the relationship between the variables that an experimenter is examining because they add error to an experiment
    extraneous variables
  28. ________ reflects the caracteristics of interest from the target population
    representative sample
  29. A ______ _______ is drawn in such a way that all members of the population have an equal chance of being selected
    random sample
  30. A ____ _____ is drawn in such a way that some members of the populatin are more likely to be chosen than others
    biased sample
  31. A __________ __________ is drawn from an "intact class" or by asking people to volunter. This is a biased sample.
    convenience sample
  32. A sample chosen from a population that has been subdivided based upon predetermined characteristics such as gender, race, socio-economic status. used for nationwide polls
    Stratified sample
  33. A sample obtained using a pre-determined system (not random); for example, choosing every 10th subject from the population.
    systematic sample
  34. Data examined from selected cases and controls to determine differences, if any, in the xposure to a suspected factor. Subjects are not "treated," cariables are not controlled, and cause & effect may not be inferrred. Incidences of premature births were counted among mothers who smoked (case group) and mothers who didn't smoke (control group)
    Retrospective Study; case-control study; cross-sectional study
  35. A group of healthy subjects is enrolled and followed over time to determine the requency with which a specific outcome develops. The sample may be grouped according to the presence or absence of a stimulus variable such as smoking history. i.e. a group of smokers and a group of non-smokers were observed across time with the intent of comparing the incidence of lung disease
    prospective study; cohort study; longitudinal study
  36. A carefully designed study that seeks to determine, under controlled conditions, the effectiveness of a treatment method
    Experiment (clinical trial)
  37. The process whereby subjects are randomly assigned to treatment and control groups
    Random Assignment
  38. The degree to which the experimental results can be generalized to the target population. The highest degree of ____ ____ exists when all responses from subjects in the sample can be seen in the population. - An average loss of 10lbs in a sample would be mirrored by an average of 10lbs lost in the population
    External validity
  39. The degree to which changing the level of independent variable causes a change in the dependent variable. In an experiment, the highest degree exists when all fluctuations in the dependent variable can be attributed to the effect of the independent variable.
    Internal validity
  40. ____ _____ occurs when subjects in a control group discover they are in the control group and they react by "trying harder"
    Avis effect
  41. The measurable, observable, or felt improvement in health or behavior not attributable to a medicaiton or treatment that has been administered
    Placebo effect
  42. .... occurs when subjects in a treatment group imporve their performance because they know they are being treated or tested
    Hawthorne effect
  43. A study in which the subject does not know whether he or she is in the treatment or control group
    Single-blind study
  44. ... occurs when a researcher inaverently influences subjects' performances, which consequently affects the outcome of a study.
    Rosenthal effect
  45. A study in which neither the subject nor the experimenter knows to which group the subject has been assigned
    Double-Blind study
  46. the average of a set of scores
  47. the middle point in a set of scores
  48. the most frequently occurring score in a set of scores
  49. A measure of variability around the mean. has same units of measurement as mean
    standard deviation
  50. A distribution made up of all possible mean values from samples of a given size.
    Sampling distribution
  51. The standard deviation of a sampling distribution. A measure of error variability used as the denominator in t statitics
    Standard Error
  52. A measure of variability representing the distance from the highest score to the lowest score.
  53. a characteristic of asymmetrical distribution.
  54. negatively skewed
    when a higher frequency of scores are found above the mean than below it
  55. positively skewed
    when a higher frequency of scoresare found below the mean than above it
  56. sx is
    sample standard deviance
  57. x with the line over it is
  58. N =
    data set
  59. omega? x is...?
    standard deviation
  60. omega2x is
    population variance
  61. s2x is
    sample variance
  62. SS =
    populations variance x N ... --- o2x X n
  63. how do you calculate z-score?
    (x - mean)/ Sx
  64. how do you calculate t-score?
  65. how do you calculate %tile?
    (x below x / ttl#) 100
  66. z scores will always have a mean and population variances of what?
    0.00 and 1