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________ is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection, analysis, interpretation or explanation, and presentation of data. Used for making informed decisions.
Statistics

All members of a specified group is a ______
Population

A subset of a population is a ...
sample

___________ __________ are used to describe the basic characteristics of the data in a study. Expressed in numerical and/or graphical form. They form the basis of virtually every quantitative analysis of data.
Descriptive statistics

_______ ________ are used to draw conclusions about a population based on information contained in a sample. Information is obtained from a sample and generalized o a population.
Inferential statistics

A value, or quantity, that represents a characteristic of a population such as population mean or standard deviation is a...
parameter

A value, or quantity, that represents a characteristic of a sample such as the sample mean or standard deviation is a...
statistic

Something that can take on more than one value is a ...
variable

the various values that a variable may assume (i.e. red, white, blue // 1, 2, 3 )
"levels" of a variable

A variable whose levels are described numerically (i.e., termperature, %body fat, and time)
quantitative variable

A variable whose leels are described with words or phrases i.e. gender or size
qualitative variable

A quantitative variable that can be reduced to an infinite number of possible values, depending on the accuracy of the measuring instrument
continuous variable

A variable, either qualitative or quantitative, with a finite number of values that cannot be subdivided meaningfully. i.e., heart rate, IQ, color
Discrete variable

Variables are cateforical, qualitative, and discrete in nature. i.e. brand of shoes, Social Security numbers, gender
Nominal Level of measurement

Variables are categorical and discrete in nature. Ranked in order i.e. finish position in race and tshirt size
ordinal level of measurement

Variables at this level may be quantitative or qualitative, discrete or continuous. Posses ordinal characteristics with added of equal intervals between levels. shoe size, temperature, IQ
Interval Level of Measurement

__________variables possess all of the characteristics of interval level variables with the added characteristic of a measurement baseline. Baseline as a zero point on the measurement scale.. height, weight, distance
ratio level of measurement

A type of research that may have limited direct application but in which the researcher has careful control of the conditions
Basic Research

A type of research that has direct value to practitioners but in which the researcher has limited control over the research setting;; longer study
Applied Research

An unscientific method of problem solving in which people cling to certain beliefs regardless of the lack of supporting evidence
Tenacity

An unscientific method of problem solving using intuitive knowledge or common sense
intuition

An unscientific method of problem solving in which reference to an authority figure is used as a source of knowledge
authority

an unscientific method ofproblem solving in which we derive knowledge through reasoning
rationalistic method

the outcome measure; the cariable that is measured in a research study.It is free to vary, and is affected by, or "dependent" on , the actions of others
Dependent variable

A variable that you identify as having a potential influence on your outcome measure. this might be a variable that you control
independent variable

Variable that is held constant, or controled, at one level thoughout an experiment.
Control Variable

undesirable variables that influence the relationship between the variables that an experimenter is examining because they add error to an experiment
extraneous variables

________ reflects the caracteristics of interest from the target population
representative sample

A ______ _______ is drawn in such a way that all members of the population have an equal chance of being selected
random sample

A ____ _____ is drawn in such a way that some members of the populatin are more likely to be chosen than others
biased sample

A __________ __________ is drawn from an "intact class" or by asking people to volunter. This is a biased sample.
convenience sample

A sample chosen from a population that has been subdivided based upon predetermined characteristics such as gender, race, socioeconomic status. used for nationwide polls
Stratified sample

A sample obtained using a predetermined system (not random); for example, choosing every 10th subject from the population.
systematic sample

Data examined from selected cases and controls to determine differences, if any, in the xposure to a suspected factor. Subjects are not "treated," cariables are not controlled, and cause & effect may not be inferrred. Incidences of premature births were counted among mothers who smoked (case group) and mothers who didn't smoke (control group)
Retrospective Study; casecontrol study; crosssectional study

A group of healthy subjects is enrolled and followed over time to determine the requency with which a specific outcome develops. The sample may be grouped according to the presence or absence of a stimulus variable such as smoking history. i.e. a group of smokers and a group of nonsmokers were observed across time with the intent of comparing the incidence of lung disease
prospective study; cohort study; longitudinal study

A carefully designed study that seeks to determine, under controlled conditions, the effectiveness of a treatment method
Experiment (clinical trial)

The process whereby subjects are randomly assigned to treatment and control groups
Random Assignment

The degree to which the experimental results can be generalized to the target population. The highest degree of ____ ____ exists when all responses from subjects in the sample can be seen in the population.  An average loss of 10lbs in a sample would be mirrored by an average of 10lbs lost in the population
External validity

The degree to which changing the level of independent variable causes a change in the dependent variable. In an experiment, the highest degree exists when all fluctuations in the dependent variable can be attributed to the effect of the independent variable.
Internal validity

____ _____ occurs when subjects in a control group discover they are in the control group and they react by "trying harder"
Avis effect

The measurable, observable, or felt improvement in health or behavior not attributable to a medicaiton or treatment that has been administered
Placebo effect

.... occurs when subjects in a treatment group imporve their performance because they know they are being treated or tested
Hawthorne effect

A study in which the subject does not know whether he or she is in the treatment or control group
Singleblind study

... occurs when a researcher inaverently influences subjects' performances, which consequently affects the outcome of a study.
Rosenthal effect

A study in which neither the subject nor the experimenter knows to which group the subject has been assigned
DoubleBlind study

the average of a set of scores
mean

the middle point in a set of scores
median

the most frequently occurring score in a set of scores
mode

A measure of variability around the mean. has same units of measurement as mean
standard deviation

A distribution made up of all possible mean values from samples of a given size.
Sampling distribution

The standard deviation of a sampling distribution. A measure of error variability used as the denominator in t statitics
Standard Error

A measure of variability representing the distance from the highest score to the lowest score.
Range

a characteristic of asymmetrical distribution.
skewness

negatively skewed
when a higher frequency of scores are found above the mean than below it

positively skewed
when a higher frequency of scoresare found below the mean than above it

s_{x} is
sample standard deviance

x with the line over it is
mean


omega? x is...?
standard deviation

omega^{2x is }
population variance

s^{2x} is
sample variance

SS =
populations variance x N ...  o^{2x} X n

how do you calculate zscore?
(x  mean)/ S_{x}

how do you calculate tscore?
10*zscore+50

how do you calculate %tile?
(x below x / ttl#) 100

z scores will always have a mean and population variances of what?
0.00 and 1

