Complete meta bolic Panel

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Complete meta bolic Panel
2011-01-11 20:21:09

met. panel
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  1. Total Protein
    • 6.3-7.9 g/dL
    • High levels may indicate:
    • Chronic inflammation, multiple myeloma, waldenstrom's disease
    • low levels may indicate: bleeding, burns, glomerular nephritis, liver disease, malabsorption, malnutirtion, nephrotic syndrome, protein losing enteropathy
  2. Albumin
    • 3.9 - 5.0 g/dL
    • Lower than normal: Ascites, burns, glomerulonephritis, Liver disease (hepatitis, cirrhosis), malabsorption (crohn's disease), malnutrition, nephrotic syndrome
  3. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)
    • 44-147 IU/L
    • Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) help measure liver and bone health.
    • High levels: anemia, biliary obstruction, bone disease, Hyperparathyroidism, healing Fx, Hepatitis, liver problem, leukemia, osteoblastic bone cancer, osteomalacia, rickets, paget's disease
    • Low Levels: malnutrition, protein deficiency
  4. ALT (alanine transaminase)
    • 8-37 IU/L
    • Liver injury; if liver is injured ALT is released into blood in higher levels
    • High Levels:
    • acute pancreatitis, cirrhosis, celiac disease, liver necrosis, hepatitis, hereditary hemochromatosis, infectious mononucleosis, lack of blood flow to liver, liver disease, liver tumor, hepatotoxic drug use
  5. AST (aspartate aminotransferase)
    • 10-34 IU/L
    • measure of liver fxn
    • High levels: acute hemolytic anemia, acute pancreatitis, acute renal failure, cirrhosis, heart attack, hepatitis, hereditary hemochromatosis, infectious mononucleosis, liver ischemia, liver necrosis, liver tumor, multiple trauma, muscular dystrophy, cardiac catheterization, surgery, convulsion, burn, hepatotoxic, skeletal muscle trauma
  6. Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) Test
    • Can check for tissue damage, megaloblastic anemia, B12 deficiency.
    • LDH High levels:
    • ischemia, CVA, MI, hemolytic anemia, infectious mono, liver disease (hepatitis), low bp, muscle injury, muscular dystrophy, new abnormal tissue formation (probably cancer), pancreatitis, tissue death
  7. Gamma- GT
    • 0-51 IU/L
    • Measures liver and bile duct fxn. Only higher in conditions affecting liver or bile duct.
    • High levels of gamma GT indicate:
    • CHF, Cholestasis, Cirrhosis, hepatitis, liver ischemia, liver necrosis, Liver tumor, hepatotoxic drug use
  8. BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen)
    • 7-20 mg/dL
    • High levels of Blood urea nitrogen mg/dL
    • CHF, Excessive protein in GI tract, GI bleeding, hypovolemia, heart attack, glomerulonephritis, acute tubular necrosis, kidney failure, shock, urinary tract obstruction
    • Low levels: liver failure, low protein intake, malnutrition, over-hydration
  9. Calcium Serum level
    • 8.5-10.2 mg/dL
    • used to screen for bone disease, parathyroid disease, kidney disease or monitor pts w/ these conditions
    • High levels: addison's, excessive vitamin D, excessive Ca intake (milk alkali syndrome), HIV, hyperparathyroidism, infexn causing granulmoa (TB), metastesized bone tumor, multiple myeloma, hyperthyroidism, Paget's disease, prolonged immobility, sarcoidosis, tumor producing parathyroid hormone like substance, lithium use, tomoxiven, thiazides
    • Low levels: hypothyroidism, kidney failure, liver disease (decreased albumin production), Mg deficiency, Malabsorption, osteomalacia, pancreatitis, rickets, vitamin D deficiency
  10. Creatinine
    • .8-1.4 mg/dL
    • Creatinine is made from breakdown of creatine (an impt muscle component). Test evaluates kidney fxn, since kidneys are supposed to remove it from the blood. Abnormal kidney function allows it to accumulate in the blood.
    • High levels:
    • acute tubular necrosis, dehyrdration, diabetic neuropathy, eclampsia, glomerulonephritis, kidney failure, muscular dystrophy, preeclampsia, pyelonephritis, Rhabdomyolysis, UT obstruxn
    • Low levels:
    • muscular dystrophy, myasthenia gravis
  11. Direct Bilirubin
    • 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
    • detects liver disease and blocked bile ducts.
    • Increased direct bilirubin: Obstruction in bile duct, cirrhosis, Dubin-Johnson syndrome, Hepatitis, intrahepatic cholestasis (buildup of bile in liver)
  12. Glucose test
    • 64-128 mg/dL
    • High: acromegaly, cushing syndrome, glucagonoma, prediabetes, hyperthyroidism, pancreatic cancer, pancreatitis, pehochromocytoma
    • Low: Hypopituitarism, hypothyroidism, insulinoma, food deprivation, too much insulin
  13. Phosphorus- serum
    • 2.4-4.1 mg/dL
    • looks for disorders that cause abnormal phosphorus levels.
    • High levels: bone metastasis, diabetic ketoacidosis, hypocalcemia, hypoparathyroidism, increased dietary/IV phosphate, liver disease, renal failure, sarcoidosis, too much vit D, meds
    • Low levesl: hypercalcemia, hyperinsulinsim, hyperparathyroidism, malnutrition, dietary reasons
  14. Total Bilirubin
    • .3-1.9 mg/dL
    • Liver disease, blocked bile duct
    • High:
    • jaundice, Crigler-Najjar syndrome, erythroblastosis fetalis, Gilbert's disease, healing of hematoma, hemolytic anemia, hepatitis, newborn jaundice, sickle cell anemia, transfusion rxn, pernicious anemia
  15. Total Cholesterol
    • 100-240 mg/dL
    • Assess risk of cardial disease/arterial obstruction
    • aslo used to monitor pts
    • High: biliary cirrhosis, familial hyperlipdemia, hypothyroidism, nephrotic syndrome, uncontrolled diabetes
    • Low: Hyperthyroidism, liver disease, malabsorption, Malnutriontion, pernicious anemia, sepsis
  16. Uric Acid
    • 3.0-7.0 mg/dL
    • Uric acid is produced when purines are broken down. It should pass through the urine, but if it doesn't or if there is too much it can cause problems. It can cause gout or kidney disease. it also might need to be monitored in order to initiate chemo.
    • High levels of uric acid: acidosis, alcoholism, certain meds, diabetes, gout, hypoparathyroidsim, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephrolithiasis, polycythemia vera, renal failure, pregnancy toxemia, purine rich diet, excessive exercise, chemotherapy side effect
    • Low: Fanconi syndrome, wilson's disease, low purine diet
  17. Serum Chloride
    • 96-106 mEq/L
    • serum chloride levels help to assess body fluid and acid base balances. test is to detect acid base disturbances or after fluid disturbance (dehydration p.e.)
    • High serum chloride (hyperchloremia): drugs (carbonic anhydrase inhibitors), dehydration, metabolic acidosis, renal tubular acidosis, respiratory alkalosis, too much bromide
    • Low: addison's , burns, certain kidney disorders, chronic compensated respiratory acidosis, CHF, excessive sweating, gastric sxn, metabolic alkalosis, overhydration, sndrome of inappropriate diuretic hormone, vomiting
  18. CO2 Blood test
    • 20-29 mEq/L
    • measures amt of CO2 in blood (indirectly measuring the blood bicarbonate level). CO2 levels can indicate fluid loss or retention. Also measure kidney and lung fxn.
    • Low levels of CO2: addison's, diarrhea, ethylene glycol poisoning, ketoacidosis, kidney disease, lactic acidosis, metabolic acidosis, methanol poisoning, salcicylate toxicit (aspirin overdose)
    • High levels: breathing disorder, cushing syndrome, vomiting, hyperaldosteronism

    Also check in: Dementia, renal tubular acidosis, delerium, alkalosis
  19. K+ Test
    • 3.7-5.2 mEq/L
    • Measure of kidney fxn, heart fxn, metabolic fxning
    • High: addison's, blood transfusion, crushed tissue injury, kyperkalemic periodic paralysis, hypoaldosteronism, kidney failure, metabolic/respiratory acidosis, RBC destruction
    • Low: chronic diarrhea/laxative use, cushing syndrome, diuretic use, hyperaldosteronism, hypokalemic periodic paralysis, note enough potassium in diet, renal artery stenosis, renal tubular acidosis, vomiting
  20. Serum Na+
    • 135-145 mEq/L
    • Balance btw sodium and water in body. Factors that may affect it: trauma, surgery, shock, large amts of salt or fluid, IV fluids containing sodium, diuretics
    • Hypernatremia: low fluid in body, (fluid loss, diabetes insipidus, hyperaldosteronism, cushing's syndrome
    • Hyponatremia: dehydration (running, diarrhea, over diuresis, vomiting, etc)