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What is triangular trade?
It connected 3 continents (Europe, Africa and the Americas). A way to exchange goods.
What did Europe traded with Africa?
Europe traded (guns, furniture, rum, clothes, textiles) with Africans for people.
What did Europe introduced?
They introduced horses, cattle, sheep, pigs, wheat, rice, barley, oats, sugar cane, peach, pear, coffee bean, bananas, grapes, citrus, onions.
What did the Americas introduced?
They introduced tomato, turkey, potato, lumber, tobacco, pumpkin, corn, cocoa beans, beans, fur, gold.
Who was John Smith and what did he do?
He was the only strong leader in Jamestown, saved settlement from ruins. He created order made them fish, plant, collect supplies and trade with natives. His rule: "no work, no eat". Pocahontas saved him.
Who is John Rolfe and what did he do?
He introduced tobacco hybrid to Jamestown, which saved it's economy. He married Pocahontas.
What is the Headright System?
Each settler got 50 acres in Virginia, and the mainly purpose was to grow as much brown gold (tobacco) as possible and populate areas. It was not successful because of the overproduction, unfair taxes, and strife with natives. Led to Bacon's Rebellion.
Who is William Bradford and what did he do?
One of the leaders of Plymouth (Pilgrims). Convinces Pilgrims to stay and agree to the Mayflower Compact. Squanto aided him.
Who is John Winthrop and what did he do?
Arrived in Massachusetts(1630) and developed an organized community. Wanted to purify the church and wanted model Christian community. Non-profit venture led to creation of "City on a hill"(closer to god better than everybody).
Who was Anne Hutchinson and what did she do?
Pilgrimed woman who was banished because she believed that a person's faith not their deeds could save a person (antinomianism). She settled in Portsmouth (Rhode Island) 1638 and few yrs late dies.
What was the French and Indian war?
French were after the Ohio River Valley and the british resolved it. Also known as the 7 years war from (1756-1763).
What was the Albany Plan of Union?
- Developed by Ben Franklin and adopted by 7 colonies it intended to:
- 1. Recruit Troops
- 2. Collect Taxes
- it failed because the colonies were jealous of each other and unwilling to cooperate.
Who was Thomas Paine and what did he do?
1776 Author of "Common Sense".
What is the Declaration of Independence?
- July 4, 1776 Thomas Jefferson's draft was adopted:
- 1. government created from consent of governed
- 2. people have 3 unalienable rights (life, liberty and pursuit happiness)
- 3. government can remone the government ideas borrowed from John Locke.
Who is Thomas Jefferson an what did he do?
- *Author of the Declaration of Independence.
- *Secretary of State during Washington's Administration, also help france. When the U.S. resigns to help France Jefferson resigns.
- *Ran for President after Washington in which he ties with Aaron Burr, Hamilton supports Jefferson. Due to their tie leds to the 12th Amendment.
- *In his second term, he refused to pay more money to barbary pirates so he sent navy to protect ships no victory but gained respect. Jeffersonian Democracy:
- 1. Seek a small and weak central government
- 2. cut military spending and national budget
- 3. support agrarian economy and average americans
- 4. geared overpopulation and urbanization this would lead to corruption.
What is the Judiciary Act of 1789?
Passed to create uniform code of law and appeals uniformity. Reafirms Constitution as Supreme law of the land. President may appoint federal government.
Who is Andrew Jackson and what did he do?
- *Was the 7th president of the U.S.
- *Young leader at Chesapeake with 2500 men and scored key victory.
- * General at the New Orleans Battle in which he lost 70 men but killed 2000 British men.
- Became legend "Old Hickory".
- *Created Specie Circular ( attempt to stop inflation) it's effect banknotes became useless and financial crisis followed, panic of 1837, led to depression.
- *Did not run for a 3rd term.
- *He goes into Florida destroys seminiole villages, hung 2 chiefs, 2 british traders and ran out spanish governor. His reputation grew.
- *Jacksonian Era begins during John Quincy Adams' presidency.
- *Election of 1824 (Democratic-Republican) he got more popular and electoral votes.
- *War hero and man of the people who served as Tennesse rep and senator and Tennesse Supreme Court.
- *Jackson:president of the common man.
- Oponents:king not president.
- *Jacksonian Reform:
- 1. Deal with native American Affairs
- 2. deal with internal improvements and land issues
- 3. enforce federal law
- 4. address nations banking and financial system
- *Indian removal act 1830
- *Jacksonian Politics:
- 1. Promised to implement a rotational system.
- 2. spoils system
- 3. kitchen cabinet
- * Peggy Eaton Affair.
- * Nullification Crisis
- *Destroy national bank by Taney's Plan
- 1. collect taxes and put in " pet banks"
- 2. pay bills with no national bank
- 3. bank will go broke
- The bank called in their loans, farmers didnt have money and blame jackson.
What is the "Era of Good Feelings"?
- Perception:8 yrs of harmony, unity, optimism, goodwill and nationalism.
- Reality:problems are tariffs, national bank, land expansion, internal improvements, slavery and sectional differences were hot topics.
Who is Henry Clay and what did he do?
- *Proposed a plan to advance American Economy (Follows Hamilton American System).
- 1. Re-establish a National Bank
- 2. Implement protective tariffs
- 3. Money form Tarifs used for federally built roads and canal cumberland road.
- *Proposed the Missouri compromise.
- *Election of 1824 supported John Quincy Adams and he became Secretary of State.
- *Convinces congress to pass on an early renawal bill in 1832, jackson vetoed it.
What is the Missouri Compromise?
- 1819:Missouri 1st to apply for statehood from Louisiana Territory.
- Tallmadge amendment:New York Rep. James Tallmadge proposed:
- 1.prohibit new slavery in Missouri
- 2.children of slaves would be emancipated at age of 25.
- Henry clay Proposed:
- 1.Missouri- slave state(1821)
- 2.Maine - Free State(1820)
- 3. Louisiana Territory - North of latitude 36o 30',slavery prohibited.
What is the Monroe Doctrine?
1823, stated that U.S opposed any New European Colonizarion and not to interfere in the affairs of U.S. (No expansion by europe).
What is the Mayflower Compact?
The firt document of government in colonies. Signed in the Mayflower by 41 men in November 11, 1620.
Who is William Penn and what did he do?
One of King Charle's beneficiary, he wanted his new colony of Pennsylvaniato be a refuge for the persecutedof all nations. He wanted religious freedom, also treated natives fairly. He had a "Holy Experiment".
What is the Joint-Stock Company?
Men Pooled money to support a big project with permission of the king with the hope of profit.
What is the Compromise of 1850?
- Zachary Taylor died and Vice-President Millard Fillmore approved the passage:
- 1. admit California
- 2. divide New Mexico and Utah (popular sovereignity)
- 3. adopt a fugitive slave law return slaves back to South.
Who is Harriet Beecher Stowe and what did she do?
Author of "Uncle Tom's Cabin". This book revealed conflict between master and slave. it drew attention toward slave institution and it angered Northerners.
Who is Harriet Tubman and what did she do?
She led over 300 slaves to freedom with vigilance comm. to protect slaves from slave catchers.
What is the Kansas-Nebraska Act?
- *Westward expansion and resources were increasing needed transcontinental railroad.
- *Illnois Senator Stephen A. Douglas proposed A.R.R. that would run North of the 36 parallel.
- *South would get access to northern, so he devised a bill for congress
- 1. R. R. runhrough North
- 2. South would get access to northern territories by splitting Nebraska territory into Nebraska and Kansas Territory open to Poplar soverignity.
What is DredScott Vs Sanford?
- *It was a court case in 1857 in which the Chief of Justice, Roger B. Taney, stated that slaves were property non-citizens have no right to petition.
- *Congress had no constitutional authority to limit slavery in federal territory.
- *Repeals idea of popular soverignity and Kansas-Nebraska Act.
What is the Seneca Falls Convention?
- A convention held by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady in New York. (1st Women's convention ever held)
- Discussed the mistreatments of wome and issued the "Declaration of Sentiments" Joined by susan B/ Anthony, they wanted:
- 1. Equal Voting rights
- 2. Improved Property rights
- 3. Better Education Opportunities
What is the Anaconda Plan?
Winfield Scott block ports and take control of Mississippi River. Split south in 2 and damage economy.
What is Emancipation Proclamation?
- Abolished slavery in Rebellious States, but did not enforce it freed no slaves.
- January 1, 1863 President Abraham Lincoln freed all enslaved persons in states under confederate control. Led to the 13th amendment.
What caused Salem witch trials?
People accussing each other of being witches. They wanted a perfect city on a hill.
Who is Benedict Arnold and what did he do?
Had been a American commander but later sold military information to British. (biggest traitor)
Why did the Articles of Confederation failed?
First constitution, it seeked no military, no taxes, weak central government and the states had more power.
What is Shay's Rebellion?
Massachussetts government raised taxes to pay off its debts instead of issuing paper money.
What is Olive Branch Petition?
Asserted the colonists loyalty to the King and asked him to call of hostilities until the situation could be worked out peacefully. John Dickinson is th author.
What is Marbury vs. Madison?
- It is a court case that happened in 1803. It is important because of American Constituional Law.
- The court has final saying in constitutional or unscontitutional manners, also whether or not an act of government violates the constitution.
What is the XYZ Affair?
- John's Treaty: between U.S. and Britain
- 1. Agreed to evacuate western forts, but continue helping natives
- 2. Will not stop seizing ships.
- heightened tensions with France in 1798 Congress suspended all trade with them. and to allow navy to rupture French Ships.
What is Reconstruction Amendment?
The 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the U.S. Consitution adopted between 1865 and 1870.
Who is Stephen Douglas and what did he do?
Knows as Little Giant and he proposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
What is the Mexican-American War?
Mexico and U.S. fighting for Texas. Mexico saying the frontier was at the Nueces River and the U.S. saying at the Rio Grande River.
Who is John L. O'Sullivan and what did he do?
American columnist and editor who used the term "Manifest Destiny" in 1845 to promote the annexation of Texas and the Oregon Country to the U.S.