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2010-10-13 15:07:37
Anatomy physiology Chapter

Anatomy and physiology Chapter 13 &14
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  1. List the 3 functions of the blood and give examples of each
    • 1) Transportation - moves oxygen and CO2, minerals, vitamins, gasses, and waste
    • 2) Regulation - Body pH and tempurature
    • 3) Protection - Prevents against blood loss and infection
  2. What type of stem cell can delvelop into all types of blood cells?
    hematopoietic stem cellls
  3. List the compositional breakdown and percent of Whole Blood
    • 1) Whole blood - 100%
    • 2) Formed Elements - 45%
    • 3) Erythrocytes - 99.1% of formed elements
    • 4) Leukocytes - 0.9% of formed elements
    • 5) Plasma - 55% of whole blood
    • 6) Water - 91% of plasma
    • 7) Protiens - 8% of plasma
    • 8) other - 1% of plasma
  4. What is this:
    • Neutrophil - Granulocyte - 60%
    • The dark ares is the nucleus and the light area is an erythrocyte
  5. What is this:
    • Eosinphil - Granulocyte -3%
    • Light marksings are erythrocyte
    • light grainy area is granuals
    • dark grainy is nucleus
  6. What is this:
    • Basophil - granulocyte -1%
    • dark - nucelus
    • light - granuals
  7. What is this:
    • Lymphocyte - Agranulocyte -30%
    • Dark area is nucleusa
    • small dot is platelet
    • light cells are erythrocytes
  8. What is this:
    • Monocyte - Agranulocyte - 5%
    • dark area is nucleus
    • light cells are erythrocytes
    • Largest in size
  9. List all Granulocytes
    • Neutrophil
    • Eosinophil
    • Basophil
  10. List all Agranulocytes
    • Lymphocyte
    • Monocyte
  11. What is the most abundant type of White blood cell in the body?
  12. What is another name for Thrombcyte
  13. What is the most abundant protiens in the body
  14. What is the liquid portion of the blood?
  15. Watery fluid that remains after a blood clot is removed
  16. What is Hemostasis?
    • Prevention of blood loss
    • - vascular contraction
    • - platelet adhesion
    • - formation of a soft aggregate plug (blood clot)
  17. Blood make up how much of body weight?
  18. Define Erythrocyte
    red blood cell: erythro meaning red - Transports oxygen
  19. Define Leukocytes
    White Blood cells: leuko means white - Protect against infection
  20. Define platelets
    also called thromobycytes. they are cell fregments that participate in blood clotting
  21. What is Albumen and why is ti important?
    The most abundant protien in plasma ios important for maintaining the blood's osmotic pressure
  22. What are clotting factors?
    Necessary for blood coagulation. Manufactured in the liver
  23. What do anitbodies do and where are they made?
    Combat infection. Made by certain white blood cells
  24. List all of the Leukocyte cell types.
    (Remember: Never Let Monkees Eat Babies)
    • Neturophils - Granulocytes
    • Lymphocytes -Agranulocyte
    • Monocytes -Agranulotcyte
    • Erythrocytes - Agranulocytes
    • Basophils - Granulocytes
  25. Hemotopoietic cells
    These have the ptoential to develop into ony of the blood cell trypes produced within the red bone marrow
  26. What is this?
    • Hemoglobin: iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells
    • composed of 4 amino acids
  27. What do Neutrophils do?
    phagocytosis -(from Greek phago, meaning eating, cyte, meaning vessel, and osis meaning process) is the cellular process of engulfing solid particles by the cell membrane to form an internal phagosome by phagocytes and protists.
  28. What do Eosinophils do?
    white blood that are associated with allergic reactions and defense against parasites
  29. What do Basophils do?
    Associated with Allergic reactions, and inflammatory reactions
  30. What do Lymphocctes do?
    Large granular lymphocytes include natural killer cells (NK cells). Small lymphocytes consist of T cells and B cells.
  31. What do Monocytes do?
    • Phagocytosis (Again) (from Greek phago, meaning eating, cyte, meaning vessel, and osis
    • meaning process) is the cellular process of engulfing solid particles by
    • the cell membrane to form an internal phagosome by phagocytes and
    • protists.
  32. What is pus composed of
    A mixture of dead and living bacteria, together with dead and living leukocytes.
  33. What is an Abscess?
    A collection of pus localized into one area is known as an abscess
  34. What are the four blood types
    A, B, AB, & O
  35. What compound promotes clotting
  36. What compounds prevent clotting
  37. prothrombosis
    Substances released from damaged tissues stimulate the formation of prothrombinase. whis is a substance that triggers the final clotting mechanism.
  38. Prothrombinase converts prothrombin to what?
    Thrombin (Calcium is needed for this step)
  39. What is serum
    The fliud that reamins after clotting

    plasma = serum + clotting factors
  40. Explain Blood type
    the four blood groups are A, B, AB, and O. Each are defined by the antigens that exist with the blood. A antigen is type A, B antigen is type B. Typa AB has BOTH anitgens, and type O has none.

    O is the universal Donor, AB is the universal recipient

    If blood with a foriegn (Anitgen to B antibody or v.v.) antigen is found, the body will destroy it.
  41. what is blood typing?
    classification of blood based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs).
  42. What does aggultinate mean? (Or agglutination)
    • clumping of particles. The word agglutination comes from the Latin agglutinare, meaning "to glue to."
    • This occurs in biology in three main examples:
    • The clumping of cells such as bacteria or red blood cells in the
    • presence of an antibody. The antibody or other molecule binds multiple
    • particles and joins them, creating a large complex.The coalescing of small particles that are suspended in a solution; these larger masses are then (usually) precipitated.An allergic reaction type occurrence where cells become more
    • compacted together to prevent foreign materials entering them. This is
    • usually the result of an antigen in the vicinity of the cells.
  43. What happens when frozen plasma is thawed?
    a white precipitate called cryoprecipitate forms at the bottom of the container
  44. Blood Disorders: Anemia
    a disorder in which there is an abnormally low level of of hemoglobin or red cells in the blood and impares the delivery of oxygen to the tissues
  45. Blood Disorders: Leukemia
    a neoplasmic blood disease characterized by an increase in white blood cells
  46. Blood Disorders: Clotting Disorders
    Conditions characterized by an abnormal tendancy to bleed because of the breakdown in the body's clotting mechanism
  47. Blood Disorders: Hemorrhagic Anemia
    a sudden and acute or gradule and chronic loss of blood. Possible reasons are chronic bleeding, ulcers, excessive mentral flow and bleeding hemoroids
  48. Blood Disorders: Hemolytic Anemia
    Anemia caused by excessive red cell destruction. Can be cause by an overactive spleen or infections, parasites (Sickle Cell Anemia)
  49. What percentage rate of african americans carry the SSA gene? How many have SSA?
    • 8%.
    • 1%
  50. Deficiency anemia
    Its a nutritionally based Anemia. Iron deficiency is the most common. Folic acid (bcomplex)
  51. Pernicious anemia
    Deficiency in vitamin b12 need for red cell formation
  52. Intrinsic Factor
    also known as gastric intrinsic factor (GIF) is a glycoprotein produced by the parietal cells of the stomach. It is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12 later on in the terminal ileum. In humans, the gastric intrinsic factor protein is encoded by the GIF gene
  53. Thalassemia
    a blood disorder passed down through families (inherited) in which the body makes an abnormal form of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. The disorder results in excessive destruction of red blood cells and anemia. To compund the problem Erythrocytes may be destroyed in the bone marrow before becoming mature
  54. Aplastic Anemia
    a condition where bone marrow does not produce sufficient new cells to replenish blood cells.[1] The condition, per its name, involves both aplasia and anemia.Typically, anemia refers to low red blood cell counts, but aplastic anemia patients have lower counts of all three blood cell types.
  55. White blood cells have two main sources. What are they?
    Myeloid Tissue and Lymphoid Tissue
  56. What Is Hemophilia?
    is a rare bleeding disorder in which your blood doesn't clot normally.
  57. Von Willebrand disease
    caused by a deficiency of von Willebrand factor. Von Willebrand factor helps blood platelets clump together and stick to the blood vessel wall, which is necessary for normal blood clotting.
  58. Thrombocytopenia
    a deficiency in the number of circulating plateletes
  59. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
    a serious clotting dissorder involving excessive coagulation
  60. What is a hematocrit?
    the volume percentage of red blood cells in whole blood
  61. what does CBC stand for
    Complete blood count
  62. what is the normal red cell count per mcL of blood?
    4.5-5.5 million
  63. what is the normal white cell count per mcL of blood?
  64. what would be the white blood cell count in the disorder leukopenia?
    below 5k
  65. what would be the white blood cell count in the disorder leukocytosis?
    above 10k.
  66. What is a Sequential Multiple Analyzer? (SMA)
    a machine that runs blood tests
  67. The Heart, Blood vessels, and circulation.
    They are important for somethign, I cant remember. she mentioned it
  68. how many BPM is the does the average heart do
  69. how big is the human heart
    Slightly bigger than your fist
  70. Where is the heart located
    between the lungs ad left of the midline. it occupies most of the mediastinum, the central region of the thorax
  71. what is the endocardium?
    the innermost layer of epithilial cells (tissue) that lines the chambers of the heart. lines the interior chambers and covers the heart vales
  72. what is the Myocardium?
    the heart muscle, the thickest layer and contracts to pump blood through the vessles.
  73. What is the epicardium?
    The serous membrane that forms the thin, outermost layer of the heart wall. covers the heart and forms the serous pericardium
  74. What surrounds the heart
    The pericardial sac
  75. just know it
  76. Describe pericardial sac?
    • its a loose fitting membrane covering the heart in two layers
    • the fiberous pericardium tough loose fitting aruond the heart to provide protection against friction, and anchors the heart into place.

    • the serous pericarium -thin delicate innermost double layer of the pericardial sac secretes lubricating pericardial fluid into the pericardial cavity.
    • - two parts pareietal layer and visceral layer
  77. know it