Animal Physiology Test 2
Card Set Information
Animal Physiology Test 2
Muscles and nervous system
Respond to stimuli
What % is muscle mass?
Respond to stimuli
Extends but may not go back to original form
Stretches like a rubber band. Goes back to original shape.
Muscles produce heat by
Motion, body posture, heat production
Stiated, voluntary-moves skeleton
Walls of organs and blood vessels, unstriated and involuntary-autonomic nervous system
Heart muscle, unstriated, involuntary
Connective tissue layers of muscle
1. Epimysium-around whole muscle
2. Perimysium-Sperates fascicles (Sections within muscle)
3. Endomysium-Around each muscle fiber
Order of muscle anatomy
Skeletal muscle>Epimysium>Fascicles>Perimysium>Muscle fiber>Endomysium>Muscle fiber>Myofibrils>filaments
Muscle>Muscle Fibers>Myofibers>Myofibrils>Myofilaments>Actin and Myosin
Cell membrane of muscle cell
Cytoplasm of muscle cell
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR)
ER of muscle cell
Distance between contractile segemnts (Z-lines)
Muscle anatomy picture
Thick filaments-includes H-and & A-band (both actin & mysosin)
Long tail and globular heads..
Myosin with ATP
Main part of thin filaments-Actin
Globular subunits of actin
Chains of G-actin woven together in a braided hair-like structure
Long single strand lying in the grooves of F-actin
Muscles can shorten by what %?
Carry nerve impulse to muscle fiber
Mortor neuron and all of its muscle fibers
Junction between neuron and muscle fibers
Motor end plate
Part of sarcolemma associated with axon terminal
Impulse and AP pathway
Impulse>axon terminal depolarizes>exocytosis of Ach>To receptor cell motor end plate>inc. Na permiability>AP moves down sarcolemma
L-tubules are where?
Excitation and relaxation of muscles
Signal down T-tubules>Sarcoplasm>Ca out>Troponin>excite/Relax>Ca pump in>sarcoplasm>L-tubules
ATP in mysosin is used when?
Causes myosin head to detach and swivel to next troponin
Actin does what in respects to mysosin
Actin slides over myosin heads. Actin moves, myosin filaments do not
Actin and myosin movement picture
When contracted, Z-lines and H-band does what?
Z-line gets pulled together
Upon muscle relaxation, what happens?
No nerve impulse>No depolorization>No release of Ca
Ca pump returns Ca to L-tubules
To remove P from ATP what is needed? ADP + Pi
Oxidative phosphorylation happens where?
Single stimulus>lag period>contracts>relaxes
More motor units used...Stronger contraction
Restimulate muscle before it relaxes
Temporal summation=stronger contraction
No relation between contractions
Missing distrophen protein
Fibers preplaced by fatty or connective tissues
Muscular autrophy-neuromuscular junction-AB to Ach binding site
Location-Blood vessels, heart, organs, etc
One impulse across entire muscle-better faster contractions
Tone-contracts slower and sustains contractions
Can shorten more and stretches more
Smooth muscle has poorly developed
Cardiac muscle is what?
Between cardiac muscles for contraction continuity
Allows for simultanious contractions-gap junction
Central nervous system consists of (CNS)?
Brain and spinal cord
PNS periferral nervous system consists of two types of nerves. What are they and their direction?
Efferent neurons are what type?
Afferent Neurons are what type?
Anatomy of brain has 4 main parts
1. Brain stem
Brain stem has 3 parts.
1. Medulla oblongata
2. Pons Varolii
Medulla Oblongata does what?
Highway for motor and sensory impulse
-swallowing, sneezing, coughing center
Pons Varolli is located where?
Superior to Medulla
Pons Varolii does what?
Connects brain stem to brain-white matter
-Part of respiratory center
-Has cranial nerves
Cranial nerve #5
Cranial nerve #6
Cranial nerve #7
Cranial nerve #8
Total amount of cranial nerves?
What is located in the midbrain?
Midbrain is located where?
Between the pons and diencephalon
The midbrain does what?
Continuation of sensory and motor neurons-upper and lower CNS
Diencephalon has two parts
2 masses of gray matter. 20 nuclei (nerves)
Replay station for afferent impulses
Pain, temp., pressure recognition
Hypothalmus does what?
Produces hormones to instruct pituitary
-Temp, feeding/satiety center, thirst, Limpic center (fear and rage, sex drive)
-Endocrine control, regulates smooth muscle contractions
Cerebrum is the..
Largest part of brain
Gary matter and white matter is where in the Cerebellum?
Inner cerebellum-White matter
Rolls of cortex
Fissures of cortex
Back of brain-vision
Lower brain-hearing & olfactory
Mid brain-Taste, touch, joint receptors
Front of brain-Dicission making, speech, voluntary motor, thought
Cerebral cortex is divided into
Motor and sensory areas
Integrate hearing and vision
Troubles here-Problem reading and not writing or trouble writing but not reading
#10-Motor goes to organs. ONLY slows heart
White matter Spinal cord
Spinal cord gray matter
Spinal cord nerve
Collection of nerve fibers (axons) OUTSIDE CNS
Spinal cord ganglion
Collection of cell bodies (somas) OUTSIDE CNS
Up spinal cord
Down spinal cord
Spinal cord nuclei
Same as ganglion but INSIDE CNS
Acending tracts are
White matter to brain
Descending tracts are
Gray matter from brain
Meninges layers, 3 of them
1. Pia mater-Innermost
3. Dura mater-Outermost, encloses blood sinus
Ventricles of brain
4 interconnected cavities
Polio-Virus distroys motor nerve cell bodies
Damage to cerebral cortex and cerebellum
Tremors, lack dopamine which normal inactivates Ach in brain. Depronil to substitute dopamine. Affect substantia nigra
Multiple sclerosis-Destruction of myelin sheaths. AB against myelin-autrophy
Build up of sphingolipids-Brain nerve cell degeneration-Lack EZ to break down sphingolipids
Theta-Emotional distress (normal for newborns)
Delta-Slowest, awake infant, sleeping adult
Thoracic and lumbar
Innervates entire body
Brain stem and sacral region
Innervates head and lower abdomen
#10 vagus nerve
All preganglionic nerves release what?
Parasympathetic postganglionic nerves release what?
Sympathetic postganglionic nerves release what?
Except sweat glands-Ach
Initial pain. Type A nerves
More diffused-heart attack. Type C nerves
Pain and temp
Crude touch, pressure
Fine touch, vibration, weight sesitivity
2 major voluntary motor pathways
Pyramidal pathways-percise muscle movement
Extrapyramidal pathways-Auditory, visual, head movements, equilibrium
Neural tacing of an experience
Repeating passages across synapse. Easier for next signal to come through
Reticular activating system (RAS)
Brain stem area responsible for arousal
Pons and medulla produce what?
Sleep. release seritonin-Inhibit RAS