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Communication develops within three broad age ranges...
Infancy, Preschool, School-age
From birth on, infants prefer experiences that support...
Infants are active participants in...
From birth on, caregivers treat infants as...
Whose theory supports that when an infant yawns, their caregiver responds by recognizing their tiredness?
the awareness that communication signals have an effect on others
Studied infants' transition from prelinguistic communication to language
Three stages of communication development based on intentionality according to Bates
Prelocutionary, Illocutionary, Locutionary
Timeline that infants use words to express their intentions
around one year
Throughout all three stages, caregivers (fill in the blank) their infants' communication skills in three ways
higher overall pitch, exaggerated intonation, slower speech, more restricted vocabulary, shorter conversations
infants babble before they speak, there are stages of babbling.
Not all vocalizations are...
babbling or speech!
Stage Four (6 to 12 months)
true babbling, jargon, gibberish, reduplicated syllables
Stage Five (9 to 18 months)
Protowords and True Words
Other skills develop in Stage Five
the illocutionary stage ends, the locutionary stage begins
consistent sound sequences, consistent meaning, and lack of conventional form
sound like adult words, have conventional meanings
In the Preschool Period, Roger Brown developed a measure
he measured utterance length by counting morphemes
can stand alone
affixes that must be attached to a root word
MLU (Mean Length of Utterance)
measures the complexity of words
Mommy, doggie eated popcorn!
- Mommy = 1
- Doggie = 1
- Eated (changed tense) = 2
- Popcorn = 1
- Step 1: Count the number of morphemes in each utterance
- Step 2: Add total number of morphemes in sample
- Step 3: Divide by total number of utterances
By the end of Stage 1, children are producing...
Pronouns emerge at...
- Stage Two
- (Children with autism may speak this way longer)
Stage Three has...
negative sentences (between the age 2 and 3)
"Wh" words are acquired in a ...
MLU Stage 6 and Beyond...
- Child continues to elaborate skills
- Child has established a strong oral language base to support the development of literacy at school
During the preschool period...
children acquire words quickly
Semantic Feature Theory
each conventional word is defined by a unique set of semantic features
Initially, children's words are defined by...
only one or two perceptual features
extends the word to a larger number of referents than those included in the adult category
child extends the word to fewer referents than those included in the conventional category
Prototype Theory (Bowerman)
all words are defined by reference to prototypes
the best example of a category
varies among exemplars
Language development at school age involves...
syntax and semantics
- children elaborate skills learned during preschool
- children learn new forms
- Passive Sentences
- Children continue to learn new vocabulary
- Children are also learning to define words
- They learn that some words have multiple meanings
Humor develops gradually...
6 to 9 years old understand the form but not the point of the humor
Pragmatics for School-Age...
conversational competence increases
the ability to reflect on language itself as a topic of inquiry
By first grade, children develop the (fill in the blank) to support the development of reading