SPP 240

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SPP 240
2010-10-13 12:21:04

Test Two Review Cards
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  1. Communication develops within three broad age ranges...
    Infancy, Preschool, School-age
  2. From birth on, infants prefer experiences that support...
    communication development
  3. Infants are active participants in...
    communication exchanges
  4. From birth on, caregivers treat infants as...
    communication partners
  5. Whose theory supports that when an infant yawns, their caregiver responds by recognizing their tiredness?
  6. Intentionality
    the awareness that communication signals have an effect on others
  7. Studied infants' transition from prelinguistic communication to language
  8. Three stages of communication development based on intentionality according to Bates
    Prelocutionary, Illocutionary, Locutionary
  9. Prelocutionary Stage
  10. Illocutionary Stage
  11. Locutionary Stage
  12. Timeline that infants use words to express their intentions
    around one year
  13. Throughout all three stages, caregivers (fill in the blank) their infants' communication skills in three ways
  14. Motherese
    higher overall pitch, exaggerated intonation, slower speech, more restricted vocabulary, shorter conversations
  15. Stark said...
    infants babble before they speak, there are stages of babbling.
  16. Not all vocalizations are...
    babbling or speech!
  17. Stage Four (6 to 12 months)
    true babbling, jargon, gibberish, reduplicated syllables
  18. Stage Five (9 to 18 months)
    Protowords and True Words
  19. Other skills develop in Stage Five
    the illocutionary stage ends, the locutionary stage begins
  20. Protowords
    consistent sound sequences, consistent meaning, and lack of conventional form
  21. True Words
    sound like adult words, have conventional meanings
  22. In the Preschool Period, Roger Brown developed a measure
    he measured utterance length by counting morphemes
  23. Free Morpheme
    can stand alone
  24. Bound Morpheme
    affixes that must be attached to a root word
  25. MLU (Mean Length of Utterance)
    measures the complexity of words
  26. Mommy, doggie eated popcorn!
    • Mommy = 1
    • Doggie = 1
    • Eated (changed tense) = 2
    • Popcorn = 1
  27. MLU Calculation
    • Step 1: Count the number of morphemes in each utterance
    • Step 2: Add total number of morphemes in sample
    • Step 3: Divide by total number of utterances
  28. By the end of Stage 1, children are producing...
    telegraphic speech
  29. Pronouns emerge at...
    • Stage Two
    • (Children with autism may speak this way longer)
  30. Stage Three has...
    negative sentences (between the age 2 and 3)
  31. "Wh" words are acquired in a ...
    predictable sequence
  32. MLU Stage 6 and Beyond...
    • Child continues to elaborate skills
    • Child has established a strong oral language base to support the development of literacy at school
  33. During the preschool period...
    children acquire words quickly
  34. Semantic Feature Theory
    each conventional word is defined by a unique set of semantic features
  35. Initially, children's words are defined by...
    only one or two perceptual features
  36. Overextension
    extends the word to a larger number of referents than those included in the adult category
  37. Underextension
    child extends the word to fewer referents than those included in the conventional category
  38. Prototype Theory (Bowerman)
    all words are defined by reference to prototypes
  39. Prototype
    the best example of a category
  40. Family resemblance
    varies among exemplars
  41. Language development at school age involves...
    syntax and semantics
  42. Syntax
    • children elaborate skills learned during preschool
    • children learn new forms
    • Gerunds
    • Passive Sentences
  43. Semantics
    • Children continue to learn new vocabulary
    • Children are also learning to define words
    • They learn that some words have multiple meanings
  44. Nonliteral Meanings
    • Metaphor
    • Simile
    • Idiom
    • Proverbs
    • Jokes
  45. Humor develops gradually...
    6 to 9 years old understand the form but not the point of the humor
  46. Pragmatics for School-Age...
    conversational competence increases
  47. Metalinguistic Ability
    the ability to reflect on language itself as a topic of inquiry
  48. By first grade, children develop the (fill in the blank) to support the development of reading
    phonological awareness