BIO 264 BIOCHEMISTRY

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Author:
CLOWE
ID:
41949
Filename:
BIO 264 BIOCHEMISTRY
Updated:
2010-10-13 14:14:35
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BIO BIOCHEMISTRY
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EXAM 1
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  1. Ionic Bonding
    • gaining electrons
    • losing electrons
    • a transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another to fill the outer orbital
  2. Cation
    an ion with a positive charge
  3. Anion
    an ion with an negative charge
  4. Covalent Bonding
    • sharing electrons
    • electrons are shared to fill the outer orbital
  5. Single covalent bonds
    • Share 2 electrons
    • one pair on electrons
  6. Double covalent bonds
    • Share 4 electrons
    • two pair of electrons
  7. Triple covalent bonds
    • Share 6 electrons
    • three pair of electrons
  8. Hydrogen Bonding
    unequal sharing of electrons; there is a region of positive charge and a region of negative charge on the molecule
  9. Example of Hydrogen Bonding
    • water
    • oxygen region is slightly negative since electrons are drawn closer to oxygen nucleus
    • hydrogen regions of water are slightly positive since electrons are closer to oxygen but the positive proton of hydrogen remains
  10. Polar Covalent
    unequal sharing of electrons
  11. Nonpolar Covalent
    equal sharing of electrons
  12. hydrophilic
    water soluble BUT insoluble in lipid
  13. hydrophobic
    insoluble in water BUT lipid soluble
  14. acid
    • releases a hydrogen ion (H+) or proton
    • (proton donor)
  15. base
    • a hydrogen ion or proton acceptor
    • (acceptor)
  16. pH
    measure of the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution
  17. acid
    below 7
  18. base
    above 7
  19. neutral
    7
  20. buffers
    minimize or resist pH changes
  21. blood pH
    7.4 +/-
  22. acidosis
    pH below 7.4
  23. alkalosis
    pH above 7.4
  24. important functional groups
    • hydroxyl (OH)
    • amino (NH2)
    • carboxyl (COOH)
  25. examples of inorganic
    • H2O
    • O2
    • CO2
    • electrolytes
  26. organic molecules
    • contain carbon and hydrogen
    • proteins
    • carbohydrates
    • lipids
    • nucleic acids
    • vitamins + other organic molecules
  27. Types of protein
    • structural protein
    • contractile or muscle protein
    • immunological or antibodies
    • hormones
    • transport or carrier proteins
    • enzymes
  28. structural protein
    • collagen
    • keratin
    • elastin
    • spectrin
  29. contractile or muscle protein
    • actin
    • myosin
  30. immunological or antibodies
    defense against disease
  31. hormones
    regulatory proteins; regulate metabolism
  32. transport or carrier proteins
    blood and cell membranes
  33. How many "common" amino acids?
    20
  34. nonessential amino acids
    body can synthesize
  35. essential amino acids
    required in diet
  36. amino acid structure
    • central carbon
    • amion group
    • acid or carboxyl group
    • hydrogen
    • "R" group
  37. structure of protein
    • amino acids bonded together
    • (dehydration synthesis)
  38. protein
    50 or more amino acids in the chain
  39. peptide
    less than 50 amino acids in chain
  40. dehydration synthesis
    smaller molecules bond together to form a larger molecule
  41. hydrolysis
    bonds between subunits of a larger molecule are broken to release the smaller subunits
  42. denaturation
    protein structure or shape is altered by changes in temperature and pH
  43. Levels of protein structure
    • primary structure
    • secondary structure
    • tertiary
    • quaternary
  44. primary protein structure
    sequence of amino acids
  45. secondary protein structure
    helix or twisting
  46. tertiary protein structure
    folding
  47. quaternary protein structure
    • several chains
    • hemoglobin
  48. substrate
    molecule or molecules the enzyme acts upon
  49. active site
    place on enzyme where the substrate attaches or bonds
  50. domain
    region on protein function or reaction occurs
  51. cofactors
    metal ions
  52. coenzymes
    vitamins
  53. examples of homeostasis
    • body temperature regulation
    • regulation of acid/base balance or pH
  54. General Composition of Carbohydrates
    CH2O
  55. Types of carbohydrates
    • monosaccharides
    • disaccharides
    • polysaccharides
  56. monosaccharides
    • simple or single sugars
    • pentose sugars
    • hexose sugars
  57. pentose sugars
    • 5 carbons
    • ribose (RNA)
    • deoxyribose (DNA)
  58. hexose sugars
    • 6 carbons
    • glucose
    • fructose
    • galactose
  59. disaccharides
    • two hexose sugars are joined by dehydration synthesis
    • sucrose
    • maltose
    • lactose
  60. sucrose
    glucose + fructose
  61. maltose
    glucose + glucose
  62. lactose
    glucose + galactose
  63. ploysaccharides
    • many glucose molecules joined by dehyd. syn
    • starch
    • glycogen
    • cellulose

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