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2010-10-13 14:20:39
Neoplasia cancer chemotherapy

NURS 501 Neoplasia lecture
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  1. What are three situations in which cell division occurs?
    • To heal a wound
    • Replace cells that are lost
    • Normal growth in children
  2. What are three pluripotent stem cells?
    • Hematopoietic stem cells
    • Embryonic stem cells
    • Peripheral stem cells
  3. What three actions occur during the cell cycle?
    • Cell size increases
    • Replication of chromosomes
    • Cell divides
  4. What does the cell cycle result in?
    Two daughter cells
  5. What are the four phases of the cell cycle?
    • G1 -phase
    • S – phase
    • G2 – phase
    • Mitosis
  6. What happens during the G1 phase of the cell cycle?
    Cell increases in size
  7. What occurs during S phase of cell cycle?
    Chromosomes are replicated
  8. What occurs during G2 phase of cell cycle?
    • Check of chromosomes to be sure it was done correctly
    • Replication proteins degraded
    • Mitosis proteins synthesized
  9. What occurs during mitosis?
    Cell division
  10. What does a tetraploid cell contain?
    2 pairs of each homologous chromosomes
  11. What do neoplasms arise from?
    Tissues cells that grow when they shouldn’t
  12. What is dysplastic?
    Cells in a lesion don’t resemble the cells of the tissue very much
  13. What is anaplastic?
    Cells in the lesion look extremely unlike the cells of the tissue
  14. What is hyperplastic?
    A proliferative lesion
  15. What is proliferation?
    Cell division
  16. What is the one exception of benign lesions staying within the bounds of the tissue of origin?
  17. What is carcinoma?
    Cancer of epithelial tissue
  18. What is sarcoma?
    Cancer of non-epithelial tissue
  19. In what populations are sarcoma’s usually found?
  20. Which cancer is more common?
  21. What are plasmacytomas?
    Well-differentiated B-cell lymphomas that make antibodies
  22. What are multiple myeolmas?
    B-cell lymphoma that grows primarily in the bone marrow
  23. Why is screening only done for relatively common cancers?
    It is expensive and they engender morbidity and mortality themselves
  24. What is the false negative rate of mammograms?
  25. At what stage can cervical cancer be diagnosed with a pap smear?
    Carcinoma in situ
  26. What does the fecal occult blood test detect?
    colon cancer or premalignant colon polyps
  27. What is PSA test highly controversial?
    Has not been shown to improve outcome
  28. Which cancers have no effective screening tests?
    Pancreatic cancer, lung cancer
  29. Which cancers have effective screening tests?
    Cervical, breast and colon cancer
  30. What 3 characteristics do pathologists use to diagnose cancer?
    • Appearance of cells
    • Location in the tissue
    • Presence of invading cancer cells in nearby tissue
  31. What 3 criteria are used to stage carcinomas?
    • T = tumor size
    • N = number of regional lymph nodes that contain tumor cells
    • M = presence/absence of detectable metastases
  32. What is genetic carcinogenesis?
    Process by which genetic change produces cancer
  33. What is a mutagen?
    Agents that cause mutations
  34. What is a somatic mutation?
    Change in DNA that occurs in an individual body cell
  35. What is a germ-line mutation?
    Change in DNA that is present in the sperm or egg and which therefore is present in all body cells of the individual
  36. What are 2 types of genes that result in cancer when mutated?
    • Oncogenes
    • Tumor suppressor genes
  37. What are oncogenes?
    Genes that promote growth
  38. What are tumor suppressor genes?
    Genes involved in inhibition of growth or in DNA repair processes
  39. What are 4 kinds of oncogenes?
    • Growth factors
    • Growth factor receptors
    • Cytoplasmic proteins that convey growth signal to nucleus
    • Transcription factors that direct cell to make new mitotic protein
  40. What are two classes of tumor suppressor genes?
    • Apoptosis promoting
    • Cell cycle inhibiting
  41. What is apoptosis?
    Cell suicide
  42. What is one stimulus for cell to enter apoptosis?
    DNA damage/mutation
  43. What is p53?
    Tumor suppressor gene that is mutated in about 50% of cancer
  44. What is Rb?
    Protein that normally inhibitis the transition from G1 to S phase of cell cycle, is frequently mutated in cancer
  45. Which cancers show benefit from adjuvant therapy?
    • Breast
    • Colon
    • Prostate
  46. What is an adjuvant therapy in breast and prostate cancer?
    Hormone treatment