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What are three situations in which cell division occurs?
- To heal a wound
- Replace cells that are lost
- Normal growth in children
What are three pluripotent stem cells?
- Hematopoietic stem cells
- Embryonic stem cells
- Peripheral stem cells
What three actions occur during the cell cycle?
- Cell size increases
- Replication of chromosomes
- Cell divides
What does the cell cycle result in?
Two daughter cells
What are the four phases of the cell cycle?
- G1 -phase
- S – phase
- G2 – phase
What happens during the G1 phase of the cell cycle?
Cell increases in size
What occurs during S phase of cell cycle?
Chromosomes are replicated
What occurs during G2 phase of cell cycle?
- Check of chromosomes to be sure it was done correctly
- Replication proteins degraded
- Mitosis proteins synthesized
What occurs during mitosis?
What does a tetraploid cell contain?
2 pairs of each homologous chromosomes
What do neoplasms arise from?
Tissues cells that grow when they shouldn’t
What is dysplastic?
Cells in a lesion don’t resemble the cells of the tissue very much
What is anaplastic?
Cells in the lesion look extremely unlike the cells of the tissue
What is hyperplastic?
A proliferative lesion
What is proliferation?
What is the one exception of benign lesions staying within the bounds of the tissue of origin?
What is carcinoma?
Cancer of epithelial tissue
What is sarcoma?
Cancer of non-epithelial tissue
In what populations are sarcoma’s usually found?
Which cancer is more common?
What are plasmacytomas?
Well-differentiated B-cell lymphomas that make antibodies
What are multiple myeolmas?
B-cell lymphoma that grows primarily in the bone marrow
Why is screening only done for relatively common cancers?
It is expensive and they engender morbidity and mortality themselves
What is the false negative rate of mammograms?
At what stage can cervical cancer be diagnosed with a pap smear?
Carcinoma in situ
What does the fecal occult blood test detect?
colon cancer or premalignant colon polyps
What is PSA test highly controversial?
Has not been shown to improve outcome
Which cancers have no effective screening tests?
Pancreatic cancer, lung cancer
Which cancers have effective screening tests?
Cervical, breast and colon cancer
What 3 characteristics do pathologists use to diagnose cancer?
- Appearance of cells
- Location in the tissue
- Presence of invading cancer cells in nearby tissue
What 3 criteria are used to stage carcinomas?
- T = tumor size
- N = number of regional lymph nodes that contain tumor cells
- M = presence/absence of detectable metastases
What is genetic carcinogenesis?
Process by which genetic change produces cancer
What is a mutagen?
Agents that cause mutations
What is a somatic mutation?
Change in DNA that occurs in an individual body cell
What is a germ-line mutation?
Change in DNA that is present in the sperm or egg and which therefore is present in all body cells of the individual
What are 2 types of genes that result in cancer when mutated?
- Tumor suppressor genes
What are oncogenes?
Genes that promote growth
What are tumor suppressor genes?
Genes involved in inhibition of growth or in DNA repair processes
What are 4 kinds of oncogenes?
- Growth factors
- Growth factor receptors
- Cytoplasmic proteins that convey growth signal to nucleus
- Transcription factors that direct cell to make new mitotic protein
What are two classes of tumor suppressor genes?
- Apoptosis promoting
- Cell cycle inhibiting
What is apoptosis?
What is one stimulus for cell to enter apoptosis?
What is p53?
Tumor suppressor gene that is mutated in about 50% of cancer
What is Rb?
Protein that normally inhibitis the transition from G1 to S phase of cell cycle, is frequently mutated in cancer
Which cancers show benefit from adjuvant therapy?
What is an adjuvant therapy in breast and prostate cancer?