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can be replenished over short periods of time
take millions of years to form and accumulate
any hydrocarbon that may be used as a source of energy
forms when heat and pressure transform plant and material over million of years.
partially decayed plant material
When does peat become lignite?
in sedimentary rock that is often called coal
What transforms lignite into bitiminas?
continued heat and pressure
What happens when coal develops from peat to bitiminas?
It becomes harder and releases more heat when it is burned.
What do power plants use to generate electricity?
oil and natural gas
form fromthe remains of plants and animals that were buried in bodies of water long ago
How does petroleum develop?
large amounts of plant and animals remains become buried in ocean floor sediments which protect the remains form oxidation.
Describe the process that turns the remains of plants and animals into natural gas and oil?
Over many years the sediments build up. Mineral reactions transform the remains into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons
Tar Sand and oil shale
some energy experts believe that fuels derived from tar sands and oil shale could become substitues for the dwindling petroleum supplies.
mixtures of clay and sand combined with water and varing amounts of black thick tar called bitumen
contains oil that is similar to the oil that is pumped at with anticlines but in tar sand the oilis more resisitent to flow and cannot be pumped easily.
Mining of oil in tar sands
mined at surface
mined material is heated wiht pressurized stream until bitimen softens and rises
a rock that contains a waxy mixture of hydrocarbons called kerogen
can be mined and heated to vaporize the kerogen
kerogen vapors are processed to remove the impurities and then refined
part of sedimentary layers that accumulated over millions of years at the bottom of 2 extremely large shallow lakes.
deposits of useful minerals that can be extracted
deposits from which minerals can be extracted profitably
a useful metallic mneral that can be mined at a profit
the natural concentration of many minerals is rather small. If extracting a mineral costs more than a value of a mineral then it is worthless
the occurrence of valuable mineral resources are closely related to the Earth's rock cycle.
generate some of the best known and most important ore deposits
usually involve minerals that are not only heavy but also durable and chemically resistant
What are common sites of accumulation?
bends in streams
cracks in stream bed
nonmetallic mineral resources
extracted and processed either for the nonmetallic element or for their chemical and physical properties
How much of our energy resources are supplied by non-renewable resources?
the direct use of the sun's rays to supply heat or electricity
fuel for nuclear plants comes from radioactive materials that release energy through nuclear fission
nuclear fission results in controlled nuclear chain reactions that release great amounts of energy
What are the disadvantages of nuclear energy?
costly, hazards associated with the disposal of nuclear wastes
accidents are possible that allow radiactive materials to escape