MedT Ch 5 Voc

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llinderl
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41962
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MedT Ch 5 Voc
Updated:
2010-10-13 15:03:33
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Vocabulary
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HLHS 101 Vocabulary: Digestive System
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  1. passage of materials through the walls of the small instestine into the bloodstream
    absorption
  2. small building blocks of proteins released when proteins are digested
    amino acids
  3. enzyme secreted by the pancreas to digest starch
    amylase
  4. terminal end or opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body
    anus
  5. blind pouch hanging from the cecum
    appendix
  6. digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder, breaks up large fat globules
    bile
  7. pigment released by the liver in bile
    bilirubin
  8. intestine
    bowel
  9. pointed, dog-like teeth next to incisors; also called cuspids or eyeteeth
    canine teeth
  10. first part of the large intestine
    cecum
  11. large intestine, consisting of the cecum; the ascending, transverse, and descending segments; and rectum
    colon
  12. carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum; also called choledochus
    common bile duct
  13. elimination of feces from the digestive tract through the anus
    defecation
  14. swallowing
    deglutition
  15. primary material found in teeth, covered by the enamel in the crown and protective layer of cementum in the root
    dentin
  16. breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms
    digestion
  17. first part of the small intestine
    duodenum
  18. act of removal of materials from the body
    elimination
  19. physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thereby increasing the surface area that enzymes use to digest the fat
    emulsification
  20. hard, outermost layer of a tooth
    enamel
  21. a chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances
    enzyme
  22. tube connecting the throat to the stomach
    esophagus
  23. substances produced when fats are digested
    fatty acids
  24. solid wastes; stool
    feces
  25. small sac under the liver; stores bile
    gallbladder
  26. simple sugar
    glucose
  27. starch; glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells
    glycogen
  28. substance produced by the stomach; necessary for digestion of food
    hydrochloric acid
  29. third part of the small intestine
    ileum
  30. one of four teeth in the dental arch
    incisor
  31. hormone produced by the endrocrine cells of the pancreas; transports sugar from the blood into cells and stimulates glycogen formation by the liver
    insulin
  32. second part of the small intestine
    jejunum
  33. pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats
    lipase
  34. a large organ that secretes bile, stores sugar, iron, and vitamins, produces blood proteins, and destroys worn-out red blood cells
    liver
  35. ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach; also called cardiac sphincter
    lower esophageal sphincter
  36. chewing
    mastication
  37. the sixth, seventh, and eighth teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch
    molar teeth
  38. roof of the mouth
    palate
  39. organ under the stomach; produces insulin and enzymes
    pancreas
  40. small elevations on the tongue
    papillae (singular: papilla)
  41. rhythmic contractions of the tubular organs
    peristalsis
  42. throat, common passageway for food from the mouth and for air from the nose
    pharynx
  43. large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines
    portal vein
  44. enzyme that digests protein
    protease
  45. soft tissue within a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels
    pulp
  46. ring of muscle at the end of the stomach nerar the duodenum
    pyloric sphincter
  47. distal region of the stomach, opening to the duodenum
    pylorus
  48. last section of the large intestine, connecting the end of the colon and the anus
    rectum
  49. ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach
    rugae
  50. digestive juice produced by salivary glands
    saliva
  51. parotid, sublingual, and submandibular glands
    salivary glands
  52. fourth and last, S-shaped segment of the colong, just before the rectum; empties into the rectum
    sigmoid colon
  53. circular ring of muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening
    sphincter
  54. muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus
    stomach
  55. fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acids and one part glycerol
    triglycerides
  56. soft tissue hanging from the middle of the soft palate
    uvula
  57. microscopic projections in the wall of the small instestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream
    villi (singular: villus)

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