Food and Nutrition

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JerrahAnn
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Food and Nutrition
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2010-12-12 22:17:14
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Grossman
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Notes for test 2
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  1. Amino Acids
    • Building blocks of protein
    • Proteins are sequences of this
  2. Types of Amino Acids
    • Essential- must be obtained from diet
    • Nonessential- can be made in body
  3. Protein
    • 20 different Amino Acids
    • 9 are essential
  4. Structure of Protein
    • Chain of Amino Acids
    • - Sequence of Amino Acids determines shape
    • - Shape determines function
  5. Protein Denaturation
    • Irreversible change in a protein’s shape
    • - Brought about by heat, acid or other agents
    • - Disrupts function
    • - Examples:
    • Hardening of an egg due to cooking
    • Curdling of milk when heating
  6. Protein Synthesis
    • Requires that all essential Amino Acids available
    • Controlled by DNA
    • DNA is a template for synthesis of mRNA
    • The sequence of Amino Acids is determined from a subunit
    • of DNA= gene
    • Sequence of amino acids determines the shape and
    • function
  7. Error in protein synthesis
    • May alter proteins functions
    • Example: Sickle Cell Anemia
  8. Functions of Body Protein
    • Structural and Mechanical Functions
    • Enzymes
    • Hormones
    • Immune Function
    • Fluid Balance
    • Acid-Bace Balance
    • Transport
    • Source of Energy
    • Nitrogen Balance
  9. Structural and Mechanical Function of Protein in Body
    • Collagen
    • Motor Protein
  10. Immune Function of Protein in Body
    Antibodies attack viruses and bacteria
  11. Acid-Base Balance of Protein in Body
    Acts as buffers
  12. Transport of Protein in Body
    Lipoproteins, other carrier molecules
  13. Source of Energy of Protein in Body
    4 kcals in grams
  14. Nitrogen Balance of Protein in Body
    • Used for Protein
    • Positive Nitrogen Balance
    • Negative Nitrogen Balance
    • Zero Nitrogen Balance
  15. Positive Nitrogen Balance
    • N intake > N output
    • - Body retains N
    • - Examples:
    • Pregnancy
    • Growth
    • Muscle building
  16. Negative Nitrogen Balance
    • N intake < N output
    • - Body loses N
    • - Examples:
    • Weight loss diet
    • Illness
    • “Wasting Disease”
  17. Zero Nitrogen Balance
    • N intake = N output
    • - Equilibrium
  18. Protein Quality
    EAA= Essential Amino Acid
  19. Complete Protein
    • Supplies all essential Amino Acids
    • - Animal proteins, soy protein
  20. Incomplete Protein
    • Low in 1 or more essential AA
    • - Most plant proteins
  21. Complementary Proteins
    • Take 2 incomplete proteins to make complete protein
    • - Must eat within the same day
    • Legumes
    • Grains
  22. Protein RDA
    • Adults: 0.8 g/kg x Body Weight in kg
    • - Example:
    • 220 lbs/2.2= 100 kg
    • 100 x 0.8= 80 g protein
    • - If vegetarian, need 1.8 g/kg x Body Weight in kg
  23. Protein Needs
    Need adequate energy (carb) in diet, to “spare protein” so protein is not used for energy
  24. Protein does not Need
    • Excess protein
    • - It generates too much ammonia (NH3) to be excreted by kidneys
  25. Protein Supplements
    A single Amino Acid can inhibit absorption of other Amino Acids (get Amino Acid deficiency)

    NO SUPPLENTENTS REQUIRED: IF TOO MUCH EXTRA PROTEIN= EXTRA CALORIES= EXTRA FAT
  26. Protein/Energy Malnutrition (PEM)
    • A deficiency of both protein and energy
    • The most widespread form of malnutrition in the world
  27. High-Protein Diet
    • Are low in plant foods (fiber, vitamins, phytochemicals)
    • - Increase risk for heart disease
    • - Linked with colon cancer
    • - Are a burden on the kidney
    • Recommendation: no more than 2x RDA for protein
  28. Lacto-Ovo Vegetarian
    • Avoids: meat, fish and poultry
    • Eats: eggs and dairy
    • Most common type in US and Canada
  29. Vegan
    • “Strict vegetarian”
    • Avoids all animal products (meat, eggs, dairy, fish, even honey)
  30. Vegetarian Foods are Universal
    • Historically, most people of the world have eaten a largely vegetarian diet
    • Only in affluent societies (Europe and North America) has a diet centered around meat
  31. Benefits of a Vegetarian Diet
    • Low in cholesterol, saturated fat
    • - Cholesterol is only from meat, eggs, dairy, fish
    • High in fiber
    • - Whole grains, fruit, vegetables
    • Contains healthy fats
    • - Nuts, seeds, avocados
    • Thus: Less Chronic Disease
    • - Heart disease, cancer, diabetes, obesity
  32. Choices to be a Vegetarian
    • Health
    • Concern for the Environment
    • Political Issues
    • Ethical Choice
    • Aesthetic Reasons
  33. Health
    • Primary reason to switch to vegetarianism
    • - Decreased incidence of chronic disease..
  34. Concerns for the Environment
    • Cattle grazing à erosion of topsoil
    • Pollution and large resource use from large animal farms
    • More protein per acre from plants than animals
  35. Ethical Choice
    • Compassion for animals, Religious reasons
    • - Example:
    • Hinduism, or Seventh Day Adventist
  36. Aesthetic Reasons
    Don’t like taste or look of meat
  37. Political Issues
    • Example:
    • - To help alleviate world hunger; can grow more plant protein
  38. Complementary Proteins for Vegetarians
    • Vegetable sources of protein are incomplete
    • Must “complement” plant proteins
    • To receive all necessary amino acids, must be eaten within the same day
    • - Grains and legumes
    • - Grains and milk products
    • - Legumes and seeds
  39. Nutrients possibly limited in Vegan Diet
    • Protein
    • Calcium
    • Iron
    • Zinc
    • Vitamin D
    • Vitamin B12
  40. Do I need a vitamin/mineral supplement?
    • Vitamin D
    • - IF don’t eat dairy or don’t get 20 minutes/ week
    • of summer sun
    • Vitamin B12
    • - If don’t eat animal products or B12-fortified foods
  41. Water Soluble Vitamins
    • Travel freely in the blood
    • Excess excreted, typically not stored in body
    • Risk for toxicity low, must consume RDA frequently
    • Main role in metabolism
    • Kidney detect and secrete excess thru urine
    • Needed in frequent doses (1-3 days)
  42. Thiamin (Vitamin B1)
    • Functions:
    • - Coenzyme of energy metabolism
    • - Nerve membrane integrity
    • Dietary Source:
    • - Pork
    • - Whole grains
    • - Enriched grains
    • - Legumes
    • Deficiency Symptoms:
    • - Beriberi
    • - Muscle weakness
    • - Wasting of lower extremities
    • - Heart failure
    • - Edema
    • Toxicity Symptoms:
    • - None
  43. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
    • Major Functions:
    • - Coenzyme of energy metabolism
    • Dietary Source:
    • - Milk/Milk Products
    • - Enriched grains
    • - Meat
    • Deficiency Symptoms:
    • - Cracks at corners of mouth
    • - Sensitivity to light
    • - Skin rash
    • Toxicity Symptoms:
    • - None
  44. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
    • Major Functions:
    • - Coenzyme of energy metabolism
    • Dietary Source:
    • - Protein foods
    • - Enriched grains
    • - Made from tryptophan (amino acid)
    • Deficiency Symptoms:
    • - Pellagra
    • - Diarrhea
    • - Dementia
    • - Dermatitis
    • - Death
    • Toxicity Symptoms:
    • - Skin flushing
    • - Blurred vision
    • - Liver damage
  45. Folate (Folic acid)
    • Major Functions:
    • - Coenzyme involved inDNA synthesis
    • - Requires B12 to function
    • Dietary Source:
    • - Enriched grains
    • - Green vegetables
    • - Legumes
    • Deficiency Symptoms:
    • - Impaired cell division
    • - Megaloblastic anemia
    • - Neural tube defects (infants)
    • Toxicity Symptoms:
    • - Masks B12 deficiency symptoms
  46. Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)
    • Major Functions:
    • - Coenzyme of folate metabolism
    • - Maintains sheath around the nerves
    • - New cell synthesis
    • Dietary Source:
    • - Only animal based foods
    • - Fortified breakfast cereals
    • Deficiency Symptoms:
    • - If no intrinsic factor, then Pernicious anemia
    • - If low intake, then Megaloblastic anemia
    • - Poor nerve function
    • Toxicity Symptoms:
    • - None
  47. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxal)
    • Major Functions:
    • - Amino acid metabolism
    • - Fat metabolism
    • - Makes hemoglobin for red blood cells
    • - Neurotransmitter synthesis
    • Dietary Source:
    • - Meat
    • - Potatoes
    • - Bananas
    • Deficiency Symptoms:
    • - Rashes, scaly skin
    • - Depression/confusion
    • - Anemia
    • Toxicity Symptoms:
    • - Nerve damage
  48. Biotin (Sulfur-containing vitamin)
    • Major Functions:
    • - Coenzyme of carbohydrates, fat, and protein metabolism
    • Dietary Source:
    • - Widespread in foods
    • - Whole grains
    • - Egg yolks
    • Deficiency Symptoms:
    • - Depression
    • - Muscle Pain
    • - Fatigue
    • Toxicity Symptoms:
    • - Unknown
  49. Pantothenic Acid
    • Major Functions:
    • - Coenzyme of energy metabolism
    • - Involved in synthesis of many compounds
    • Dietary Source:
    • - Widespread in foods
    • - Meats
    • - Whole grains
    • Deficiency Symptoms:
    • - Hypoglycemia
    • Toxicity Symptoms:
    • - None
  50. Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
    • Major Functions:
    • - Antioxidant
    • - Collagen synthesis
    • - Helps in iron absorption
    • - Supports immune system
    • Dietary Source:
    • - Citrus fruits
    • - Cabbage type vegetables
    • - Dark green vegetables
    • Deficiency Symptoms:
    • - Scurvy
    • - Poor wound healing
    • - Bruising
    • - Frequent infections
    • Toxicity Symptoms:
    • - Nausea
    • - Diarrhea
    • - Interferes with medications
  51. Fat Soluble Vitamins
    • Trapped in cells associated with fat
    • Many require a protein carrier for transport
    • Require bile for absorption
    • Likely to remain in the body for long periods of time (stored)
    • Can eat less than RDA for periods of time if stores are high (need periodic doses)
    • Likely to reach toxic levels when consumed in excess (supplements)
  52. Vitamin A (Beta-Carotene)
    • Major Functions:
    • - Promotes vision
    • - Promote cell division
    • - Reproduction
    • - Antioxidant: Beta-Carotene
    • -Supports immune system
    • -Promotes growth
    • Dietary Source:
    • -Vitamin A:
    • - Liver
    • - Fortified milk
    • - Cheese
    • -Beta-Carotene
    • - Spinach
    • - Carrots
    • - Sweet potatoes
    • FAST FOODS ARE POOR SOURCE
    • Deficiency Symptoms:
    • - Night blindness
    • - Xerophthalmia
    • - Keratinization
    • - Poor growth
    • - Poor immunity
    • Toxicity Symptoms:
    • - Fetal malformations
    • - Liver failure
    • - Fractures
    • - Seen in supplementation and too much liver
  53. Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol)
    • Synthesized in the body by sunlight
    • Is a hormone
    • Major Functions:
    • - Promotes blood calcium levels
    • - Many target tissues for it
    • Dietary Source:
    • - Only animal-based foods
    • - Fortified milk
    • - Egg yolk
    • - Liver
    • - Fatty fish
    • - Sun exposure
    • Deficiency Symptoms:
    • - Similar to calcium deficiency
    • - Rickets in children
    • - Osteomalacia in adults
    • Toxicity Symptoms:
    • - Calcium deposits in soft tissues
    • - Kidney damage
    • - Most likely vitamin to become toxic
  54. Vitamin E (Tocopherol)
    • Major Functions:
    • -Antioxidant
    • - Protects Vitamin A and unsaturated fatty acids
    • - May decrease risk of heart disease
    • - Protect lungs from air pollution
    • - Helps immune function
    • Dietary Source:
    • - Vegetable oils
    • - Nuts and seeds
    • - Whole grains
    • Deficiency Symptoms:
    • -Not common
    • - Nerve degeneration
    • - Breaking of RBC
    • Toxicity Symptoms:
    • -Not common
    • - Hemorrhage (=bleeding)
  55. Vitamin K (Phylloquinone)
    • Major Functions:
    • - Blood clotting
    • - Synthesis of bone proteins
    • Dietary Source:
    • - GI bacteria
    • - Leafy green vegetables
    • - Cabbage
    • - Milk
    • Deficiency Symptoms:
    • - Hemorrhaging
    • - Skeletal weakness
    • Toxicity Symptoms:
    • -Not common
    • - Reduced effectiveness of anti-clotting medications
    • - Jaundice
    • - Red blood cell breaking
  56. Infectious Disease
    • Caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites
    • Transmitted from one person to another through contact via air, water, food, or vector organisms
  57. Chronic Disease
    • Irreversible
    • Characterized by degeneration of body organs due to:
    • § Genetic predisposition
    • § Personal medical history
    • § Poor lifestyle choices
    • - Poor food choices, smoking, excessive alcohol use, lack of PA
  58. Immunity is impaired by..
    • Low Protein
    • Low Energy
    • Low Vitamin A, E, and D
    • Low B-vitamins, Folate, Vitamin C
    • Low Copper, Magnesium, Selenium
    • High and Low Iron
    • High and Low Zinc
  59. Malnutrition and Disease
    • Cancer
    • HIV/AIDS
    • § Result in wasting body tissue
  60. Cardiovascular Disease
    • Results in 1 million deaths annually in the US
    • #1 cause of death in developed nations
    • Population at risk:
    • - Men: more likely to experience MI
    • - Women: more likely to die from MI
  61. Atherosclerosis
    • Development:
    • § Soft, fatty streaks along inner wall of artery
    • § Streaks enlarge, becoming hard plaques
    • - Contributes to inelastic, narrow vessel walls
  62. Plaques induce.. (in Atherosclerosis)
    • Abnormal blood clotting
    • - Thrombus
    • - Embolus
  63. Thrombus
    Stationary blood clot
  64. Embolus
    • A thrombus that breaks loose
    • - Results in heart attack or stroke
  65. Dietary Risk Factors of Atherosclerosis
    • "Atherogenic Diet”- influence plaque formation
    • § High in saturate fat and trans fat
    • § Low in vegetables, fruits, whole grains
    • § Low in omega-3 fatty acids --> oppose clot formation
  66. Lifestyle Risk Factors of Atherosclerosis
    • High blood LDL cholesterol, low blood HDL cholesterol
    • Hypertension
    • Toxins from cigarette smoking
    • Viral and bacterial infections
    • Obesity
    • Diabetes
    • Physical inactivity
  67. Hypertension
    • Role of the kidneys during dehydration and Atherosclerosis
    • - Constrict blood vessels --> increases Blood Pressure
    • - Exacerbates Atherosclerosis
    • = High blood pressure --> increased damage to arteries --> increased clot formation
    • - Atherosclerosis exacerbates this
    • = Hardened arteries and clots --> decreased blood flow to kidneys --> increased blood pressure -->
    • hypertension
  68. Manageable Risk Factors of Hypertension
    • Obesity (especially central adiposity)
    • Atherosclerosis
    • Insulin resistance/Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
  69. Non-Modifieable Risk Factors of Hypertension
    • Age: most develop hypertension in 50s and 60s
    • Genetic predisposition to hypertension
    • - African Americans have greater prevalence of hypertension
    • § However, obesigenic US environment plays a role prevalence
  70. Blood Pressure Assessment
    • Systolic Pressure
    • Diastolic Pressure
    • Ideal resting blood pressure: 120/80
    • Borderline normal blood pressure: 130/85
  71. Systolic Pressure
    Pressure during contraction of heart
  72. Diastolic Pressure
    Pressure during relaxation of heart
  73. Diet and Hypertension
    • Increase fruits, vegetables, fish, and low-fat dairy product consumption
    • Reduce sodium intake
    • Reduce fat intake
    • Adequate intake of calcium, potassium, magnesium, Vitamin C
  74. Physical Activity and Hypertension
    Loss of as little as 10 lbs has a significant effect on hypertension
  75. Sodium and Hypertension
    • Sodium plays a role in maintenance of body fluid homeostasis
    • - Regulates extracellular fluid and plasma volume
    • High sodium diet associated with hypertension
    • - Increases blood pressure
    • § Lowering sodium intake decreases BP regardless of gender or race
  76. Diabetes Mellitus
    • Chronic disease characterized by elevation of blood glucose concentrations and inadequate or ineffective insulin, which impairs a person’s ability to regulate blood glucose normally
    • The role of insulin
    • Two types:
    • - Type 1
    • - Type 2
  77. Type 1 Diabetes
    • Pancreas produces little or no insulin
    • - Leading disease for children
  78. Type 2 Diabetes
    Pancreas makes plenty of insulin, but body’s cells resist insulin’s action= insulin resistance- believed to be a consequence of obesity
  79. Managing Type 2 Diabetes
    • Adequate fiber
    • Moderate added sugars
    • Controlled total carbohydrate to regulate glucose intake
    • Low saturated fat and adequate unsaturated oils
    • Adequate but not very high protein intake
  80. Cancer
    • Disease in which cells multiply faster than normal and disrupt normal functioning of organ(s)
    • 2nd leading cause of death in US
  81. Steps of Cancer Development
    • 1. Exposure to carcinogen
    • 2. Carcinogen enters cell
    • 3. Carcinogen damages or changes cell’s DNA= initiation
    • 4. Damage promoted by other carcinogens, called promoters; cell begins to multiply out of control= tumor formation
    • 5. Cancer cells spread via blood and lymph= metastasis
    • 6. Disruption of normal body functions
  82. Nutrition and Cancer
    • Carcinogens can be food substances
    • Normally, the body detoxifies the small doses of carcinogens that occur naturally in foods
    • As processing increases, see an increase in potential carcinogens via food additives
    • 15% of cancer could be eliminated by preventing overweight and obesity
    • Diets high in fruits and vegetables
    • - Linked to low occurrence of cancer
    • Diets high in dietary fat, meat, alcohol, excess calories
    • - Linked to increased risk of cancer
  83. Phytochemicals and Cancer
    • Whole grains, fruits, and vegetables high in antioxidants and phytochemicals:
    • - Prevent initiation and progression of cancer
    • - Cruciferous vegetables- associated with decreased risk of colon cancer
    • - Phytochemicals are functional foods:
    • § Promote health
    • § Fight disease
  84. Risks of being Underweight
    • Not enough reserves
    • Can’t fight wasting disease (Cancer)
  85. Risks of being Overweight
    • Increased chronic disease
    • Central obesity (“apple shape”) is especially dangerous
  86. Body Mass Index (BMI)
    • Ratio of weight to height
    • - Healthy BMI= 18.5-24.9
    • - Overweight= 25-29.9
    • - Obese= 30
  87. Energy Balance
    Energy In
    • Food and beverages consumed (=calories)
    • Hunger
    • Appetite
  88. Hunger
    • Physiological (internal) drive to eat
    • - Low blood glucose
    • - Controlled by internal body
  89. Appetite
    • Psychological (external) drive to eat
    • - Often in the absence of hunger
    • - Food “looks” good to eat
  90. Energy Balance
    Energy Out
    • Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
    • Thermic Effect of Food (TEF)
    • Physical Activity
  91. Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
    • For metabolism, breathing, temperature maintenance etc. (involuntary activities) while at complete rest
    • - 60-65% of calories needed
    • - Greatest component of energy expenditure
  92. Thermic Effect of Food (TEF)
    • Energy needed to digest food; 10% of total energy needs
    • - 5-10% of calories needed
  93. Physical Activity
    • Intentional activity
    • Examples:
    • - Walking
    • - Sitting
    • - Running
    • - Moving
    • 25-35% of calories needed
  94. Total Energy Needs (calories)
    • BMR x Thermic Effect x Activity Level
    • 1 lb of body fat= 3500 calories
  95. Anthropometry
    Skin fold test
  96. Underwater Weighing
    Weight in water vs. weight in air
  97. Bioelectrical Impedance (electric current)
    Fat has different electrical resistance than water
  98. DEXA (x-rays)
    Fat responds differently to x-rays than water
  99. BodPod
    • Estimates body volume by measuring air pressure
    • Get body density from: Body Mass/Volume
    • Then can estimate body fat from body density
  100. Heredity and Genetic Factors on Weight Gain
    • Adopted children have weight similar to biological parents not adoptive parents
    • If one obese biological parent= 60% chance of obese child
    • If two biological parents are obese- 90% chance of obese child
  101. Sociocultural Influences on Weight Gain
    • Palatability of foods (especially fat content)
    • Food availability
    • Highly palatably, high calorie, affordable foods available 24/7 (big problems in U.S.)
  102. Age and Lifestyle Factors on Weight Gain
    Physical inactivity
  103. Psychological Factors on Weight Gain
    Loneliness, addiction, depressions, stress
  104. Fat Cell Theory
    • Obesity is influenced by total # of fat cells in body
    • Most fat cells are formed during childhood
    • Can help limit fat potential if limit # fat cells in childhood (prevent childhood obesity)
  105. Set Point Theory
    • Body fat is maintained around a set point (like a thermostat)
    • Obese people have a high set point

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