database.txt

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Author:
gailbelanger
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41973
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database.txt
Updated:
2010-10-13 16:45:01
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database
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Description:
IMD375-Database Week1
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  1. DATA IN THE SCHEME OF THINGS

    DATA IS:
    Any small slice of information.
  2. INFORMATION IS:
    Created when there are several pieces of data arranged together.
  3. KNOWLEDGE IS:
    Created when information is grouped together.
  4. MANAGING DATA:

    IN ORDER TO MANAGE DATA:
    We have to store it.
  5. WE STORE DATA FOR:
    Many reasons:

    • Historical fact.
    • Inventory.
    • Temporary calculations.
    • Business intelligence.
  6. WE MANAGE THE STORAGE OF THE INFORMATION SO THAT:
    We can ask for it in many different ways.
  7. WHAT IS A DATABASE?

    THE ENTIRE COLLECTION OF DATA IS CALLED:
    A Database.
  8. A DATABASE IS AN ORDERED COLLECTION OF INFORMATION FROM WHICH:
    A computer program can quickly access information.
  9. EACH ROW IN A DATABASE IS CALLED:
    A Record.
  10. A RECORD IN A DATABASE IS A:
    Single complete set of related information.
  11. EACH COLUMN IN A DATABASE TABLE IS CALLED:
    A Field.
  12. FIELDS ARE:
    The individual categories of information stored in a record.
  13. TYPES OF DATABASES:

    FLAT-FILE DATABASES:
    Store information in a single table.
  14. RELATIONAL DATABASES:
    Store information across multiple related tables:
  15. MULTI-DIMENSIONAL DATABASES:
    Use either collections of relational databases or treats data groups as objects that can be viewed from many “angles”.
  16. FLAT-FILE DATABASES:

    EXAMPLES ARE:
    • Plain text files.
    • CSV (comma separated values).
    • XML files.
    • JSON strings.
  17. FLAT-FILE STORAGE IS EFFICIENT UP TO A POINT:
    • If your data requirements are small, flat files are more efficient.
    • Does not require an application or middleware.
  18. EFFICIENCY DEPENDS ON THE METHOD AND THE:
    Operating system:

    • Unix is very efficient with flat files,
    • Windows (NTFS and FAT) is not.
  19. FLAT-FILE DATA ARRANGEMENT:

    SUPPOSE YOU NEEDED TO STORE A SIMPLE DATA COLLECTION OF STUDENT NAMES, ID NUMBERS AND EMAILS:
    For such a data collection, something very linear in nature, a flat file is more efficient, unless there are a large number of data points. (records)
  20. DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS:

    A DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (OR DBMS) IS AN:
    Application or collection of applications used to access and manage a database.
  21. A SCHEMA IS:
    The structure of a database including its tables, fields, and relationships.
  22. A RELATIONAL DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (OR RDBMS) IS:
    A system that stores data in a relational format.
  23. RELATIONAL DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS:

    RELATIONAL DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (RDBMS) ARE:
    Applications (middleware) that serve several purposes*:

    • Storage of data with preservation of file structure (schema).
    • Provide access to data through SQL or some other language(querying capability).
    • Provide security over the access of data.
    • Provide backups.
    • Provide availability of programmatic control.
    • Provide wide-scale up-time.

    * Not all apply in every case
  24. RELATIONAL DATABASES PROVIDE:
    Much broader support for the storage and access of information.
  25. ONCE YOU HAVE MORE THAN ON FLAT-FILE, PARTICULARLY IF THAT DATA IS EITHER RELATED OR SUBJECT TO DUPLICATION:
    A Relational Database should be used.
  26. RELATIONAL DATABASES HAVE THEIR OWN:
    Special needs and their own unique programmatic requirements.
  27. EXAMPLES OF RDBMS SYSTEMS ARE:
    • Microsoft Excel and Microsoft Access.
    • MySQL.
    • MaxDB14.
    • Microsoft SQL Server.
  28. UNDERSTANDING RELATIONAL DATABASES:

    RELATIONAL DATABASES CONSIST OF:
    One or more related tables.
  29. A PRIMARY TABLE IS:
    The main table in a relationship that is referenced by another table.
  30. A RELATED TABLE (or “child table”) REFERENCES:
    A primary table in a relational database.
  31. A PRIMARY KEY IS A FIELD THAT CONTAINS A:
    unique identifier for each record in a primary table.
  32. A PRIMARY KEY IS:
    A type of index which identifies records in a database to make retrievals and sorting faster.
  33. PRIMARY KEYS, NO MATTER WHAT DATA TYPE THEY ARE:
    May only exist once within a table.
  34. PRIMARY KEYS CAN BE:
    A single field or several fields in combination, but they must be in a single table.
  35. A FOREIGN KEY IS:
    A field in a related table that refers to the primary key in a primary table.
  36. PRIMARY AND FOREIGN KEYS:
    Link records across multiple tables in a relational database.
  37. ONE-TO-ONE RELATIONSHIPS:

    A ONE-TO-ONE RELATIONSHIP EXISTS:
    Between two tables when a related table contains exactly one record for each record in the primary table.
  38. CREATE A ONE-TO-ONE RELATIONSHIP TO:
    Break information into multiple, logical sets.
  39. INFORMATION IN THE TABLES IN A ONE-TO-ONE RELATIONSHIP CAN:
    Be placed within a single table.
  40. ONE-TO-ONE RELATIONSHIPS:
    Make the information in one of the tables confidential and accessible only by certain individuals.
  41. ONE-TO-MANY RELATIONSHIPS:

    A ONE-TO-MANY RELATIONSHIP EXISTS IN:
    A relational database when one record in a primary table has many related records in a related table.
  42. BREAKING TABLES INTO MULTIPLE RELATED TABLES TO REDUCE REDUNDANT ANDDUPLICATE INFORMATION IS CALLED:
    Normalization.
  43. NORMALIZATION IN A ONE-TO-MANY RELATIONSHIP
    PROVIDE:
    A more efficient and less redundant method of storing this information in a database.
  44. MANY-TO-MANY RELATIONSHIPS:

    A MANY-TO-MANY RELATIONSHIP EXISTS IN A RELATION DATABASE WHEN:
    Many records in one table are related to many records in another table.
  45. A JUNCTION TABLE CREATES A:
    One-to-many relationship for each one to of the two tables in a many-to-many relationship.
  46. A JUNCTION TABLE CONTAINS:
    Foreign keys from the two tables.
  47. DESIGNING DATA STRUCTURES WITH ER:

    ENTITY RELATIONSHIP (OR ER) DIAGRAMS:
    Are a method used to construct data layouts by providing a visual depicting the association of data.
  48. AN ENTITY IS AN OBJECT – JUST LIKE:
    In HTML- Depicted with a rectangle.
  49. AN ATTRIBUTE IS CHARACTERISTIC OF:
    An entity:

    • Depicted with an oval.
    • Can be many attributes for a single entity.
    • Attributes can be multi-value, indicated by a double oval.
    • Composite attributes are attributes made of a collection of other attributes.
  50. DESIGNING DATA STRUCTURES WITH ER:

    -IN AN ER, ATTRUBUTES OF AN ENTITY ARE:
    Tied to it with connectors and the attributes defined inside the attribute shape.
  51. AN ATTRIBUTE AND COMPOSITE ATTRIBUTES ARE:
    Tied to its entity or sub-attributes by connectors.
  52. KEYS ARE ATTRIBUTES THAT DEFINE UNIQUENESS AND ARE:
    Designated with an underline.
  53. REPRESENTING RELATIONSHIPS WITH ER:

    MULTIPLE ENTITY STRUCTURES ARE TIED TO OTHER ENTITY STRUCTURES WITH A RELATIONSHIP, ARE SIGNIFIED BY A:
    Diamond.
  54. RELATIONSHIPS CAN BE:
    Optional or Compulsory depending on the type of the database.
  55. DOES THE EXISTENCE OF ONE REQUIRE THE EXISTENCE OF THE OTHER?

    IN TOTAL PARTICIPATION:
    One entity can exist in the relationship by attachment to the other.
  56. IN PARTIAL PARTICIPATION:
    One entity can exist without having relationship to the other.

    • Example: is a person in a store a customer because he buys something or just because he walks into a
    • store?
  57. RELATIONSHIPS CAN ALSO HAVE:
    Attributes.
  58. ACCESSING RDBMS DATA:

    A QUERY IS A:
    Structured set of instructions and criteria for retrieving, adding, modifying, and deleting database information.
  59. STRUCTURED QUERY LANGUAGE (OR SQL) IS A:
    Standard data manipulation language used among many database management systems.
  60. EACH RDBMS HAS IT’S OWN:
    SQL.
  61. MOST SQL CONFORMS LARGELY TO A:
    Basic SQL standard.
  62. OPEN DATABASE CONNECTIVITY (OR ODBC) ALLOWS:
    ODBC compliant applications to access any data source for which there is an ODBC driver.

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