Microbiology 120 scsu

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stephie6390
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41985
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Microbiology 120 scsu
Updated:
2010-10-19 09:16:37
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2nd exam micro
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Host Defense and immunology
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  1. Why do we defend ourselves?
    From microorganisms
  2. Present on or in our bodies
    changes over time
    Normal Flora
  3. don't harm us
    resident flora
  4. can cause disease
    opportunistic pathogens
  5. microorganisms that may be present in or on the body under certain
    conditions and for certain lengths of time; they are easier to remove by
    mechanical friction than resident flora
    Transient Flora
  6. present in all humans
    exist from birth
    act against all or most pathogens
    first line of defense rapid response
    non specific mechanisms
  7. activate in response to a pathogen
    active against specific pathogens
    prevent reinfection
    specific mechanisms (offensive)
  8. species immunity
    behavioral immunity
    racial immunity
    population immunity
    innate immunity
  9. skin
    mucous membrane
    ciliary movement
    mechanical barriers (defensive)
  10. lysozomes in saliva and tears
    acid in stomach
    sticky acidic vaginal secretions
    chemical barriers (offensive)
  11. Protein response for virus
    protect normal cells from affected cells
    alpha beta gamma
    Interferon
  12. produced by almost all cells
    especially effective against viral infections
    alpha and beta
  13. produced by natural killer cells and by specific lymph-nodes
    gamma
  14. protein infections
    non-specific innate and specific immune response
    20 different proteins
    aggregate from membrane attack complex (MAC)
    triggered by antibody binding to microbes
    amplifies inflammatory response
    Complement
  15. Aggregate to form a ___ ____ ____ that inserts into the plasma membrane of the invading cells. Fluid enters the cell through the pore, causing the cell to swell and burst.
    Membrane Attack Complex
  16. White Blood Cells
    circulate through body
    attack invading microbes within tissue
    Granulocytes or Agranulocytes
    Leukocytes
  17. Granuloes with in cytoplasm
    neutrophils
    basophils
    eosinophils
    Granulocytes
  18. No granuloes
    monocytes
    natural killer cells
    B & T lymphocytes (specific immune response)
    agranulocytes
  19. most abundant
    eliminate microbes by phagocytosis
    short life span
    not found in healthy tissue
    release chemical that kills bacteria
    Neutrophils
  20. large irregular shaped cells
    kills microbes by phagocytosis
    roam the extracellular fluid
    macrophages
  21. process by which neutrophils and macrophages kill pathogens
    four steps
    *recognition
    *engulfment
    *destruction
    *expulsion
    Phagocytosis
  22. kill cells of the body that have been invaded by viruses and intracellular pathogens
    kill by lysis
    also kill cancer cells
    Natural killer cells
  23. a molecule that provokes an immune response
    antigen
  24. respond to antigens by producing proteins called antibodies
    bind to antigen
    B cells
  25. do not secrete antibodies they regulate immune response and also directly attack cells that carry specific antigens
    mature in thymus
    T Cells
  26. originate and mature in bone marrow
    released to circulate in blood and lymph
    recognize specific foreign antigens
    B cells
  27. Variable region of heavy chain
    antigen binding site
    variable region of light chain
    constant region of heavy chain
    constant region of light chain
    structure of an antibody
  28. firs antibody secreted during primary immune response promotes agglutination reaction in blood and extracellular fluids
    pentamer
    IgM
  29. secreted during secondary response most abundant form in blood plasma maternal Ab activates complement
    monomer
    IgG
  30. most abundant form in body secretions breast milk tears saliva mucus
    Dimer
    IgA
  31. present on the surface of B cells as receptors assists in activation of B cells
    monomer
    IgD
  32. promotes the release of histamine which triggers and allergic reaction effective against worms
    monomer
    IgE
  33. originate in bone marrow
    mature in thymus
    identify micro-organisms by he antigens exposed on their surface
    T Cells
  34. initiate the immune response
    T Cells
    Helper T Cells
  35. provide a quick response to previously encountered antigen
    T Cell
    Memory T Cells
  36. lyse cells that have been infected by viruses also attack transplanted tissue and cause graft rejection
    T cell
    Cytotoxic T Cells
  37. terminate the immune response
    T cell
    Suppressor T cell
  38. abnormal B cell response
    occurs within seconds or minutes
    IgE mast cells
    allergens dust bee sting pollen food
    treated with antihistamines
    Type I immediate hypersensitivity anaphylaxis
  39. abonormal Ab response IgG & IgM
    activation of complement and phagocytosis
    transfusion reactions Rh disease of new born
    Type II cytotoxic hypersensitivity
  40. Abnormal Ag-Ab complexes form and deposit throughout the body stimulating complement and phagocytosis
    IgG & IgM
    systemic lupus
    treated with steroids
    Type III immune complex hypersensitivity
  41. abnormal T cell response
    produces symptoms about 48 hours to weeks after exposure cannot be treated with antihistamines
    corticosteroids are used
    poison ivy
    Type IV delayed hypersensitivity cell mediated hyper...
  42. obtained by injecting an antigen into an animal and later drawing blood effective against a number of antigenic sites
    polyclonal antibodies
  43. specific for one antigenic determinant site coated onto beads and used in detection test
    monoclonal antibodies
  44. an agent that kills bacteria
    bactericidal
  45. an agent that inhibits growth of bacteria but does not usually kill them
    bacteriostatic
  46. contamination of an object by microbes septicemia is microbial infection of the blood
    sepsis
  47. free of microbial contamination
    aseptic
  48. are natural substances produced by certain groups of microorganisms that kill or inhibit the growth of other microorganisms
    antibiotics
  49. are chemically synthesized compounds used in the treatment of infectious diseases
    chemotherapeutic agents
  50. block folic acid synthesis
    sulfa drugs and folic acid analogs
  51. sulfanilamide
    sulfa drug
  52. trimethoprim
    folic acid analog
  53. interfere with synthesis of bacterial cell wall which is not present in eukaryotes
    bind to and inhibit enzymes needed for synthesis of peptidoglycan no effect on resting cells lethal to dividing cells
    beta lactams
  54. penicillin
    cephalosporins
    carbapenems
    B-lactams
  55. inhibit bacterial protien synthesis
    70s ribosomes of bateria is different than that of 80s ribosomes of eukaryotes
    bind to small subunite and precent formation of initiation complex
    aminoglycosides
  56. steptomycin
    Kanamycin
    neomycin
    gentamycin
    paramomycin
    aminoglycosides
  57. halt protein synthesis in the bacteria
    bind to cmall ribosomal subuint and prevent transfer of activated amino acids to the ribosomes thus halting protien synthesis
    discoloration of teath broad specturum
    tetractcline
  58. chlortetracycline
    oxytetracycline
    doxycycline
    tetracycline

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