Mycology 7.14

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Mycology 7.14
2010-10-14 11:09:27
Microbiology Mycology NSHS MLT

Microbiology Unit 7.14 Mycology
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  1. A branch of botony dealing with fungi.
  2. A disease caused by fungi; a fungal infection in or on a part of the body.
  3. A kingdom of plantlike spore-forming organisms that grow in masses with out roots, stems, leaves, or photosynthetic pigments.
  4. A closed sac-like structure where sporangiospores are formed. (Large sac-like structure).
  5. A single celled or multicellular organism whose cells contain a distinct membrane-bound nucleus.
  6. A spore formed by budding, as in yeasts; thin-walled and water-balloon-like.
  7. a spore formed by the rounding-up of a cell; thick walled; intercalary or terminal postion; it is not shed.
  8. an organism that cannot synthesize its own food and is dependent on complex organic substances for nutition.
  9. A plant that derives its nourishment from dead or decaying organic matter.
  10. hyphae that are subdivided into individual cells by transverse walls.
  11. those without walls.
  12. basic structural unit of mold, tube like projections.
  13. elongated buds that have failed to separate and are connected together to form a link-of-sausage appearance.
  14. loose network of hyphae.
  15. what are the two types of mycelium?
    • vegetative
    • aerial
  16. This type of mycelium is the nutrients absorbing and water exchanging portion.
  17. This type of mycelium extends above the substrate.
  18. Unicellular fungus that reproduce by budding.
  19. What is the size of yeast?
    2.5 to 6 mircrons
  20. what CDC biosafety levels should be used when handling fungi?
    • II
    • III
  21. What class of saftey cabinet should be used when handling fungi?
    2 or 3
  22. These are single cell forms of fungi.
  23. These are multiple cells of fungi that form filaments.
  24. true or false
    Fungi lack chlorophyll.
  25. These are hetrotrophic, saprophytic and/or parasitic organisms that reproduce by spores, either sexually or asexually.
  26. Tubular filaments or threads that are branched or unbranched.
  27. this is a mass of hyphae.
  28. these mycelium project above the substrate and may be comprised of or support elaborate spore bearing, fruiting bodies.
    Aerial or reproductive mycelium
  29. True hyphae are filamentous, flat-ended cells that form __________ cells, do not show points of constriction.
  30. Pseudohyphae have regular points of _________ (link sausages)
  31. Pseudohyphae are produced in nutritionally _____ environments.
  32. Pseudohyphae may bud to form _________ (yeast cells) with lesser diameter than true hyphae.
  33. What are the three types of clinically significant hyphae, and their characteristics?
    • coenocytic: sparsely septate
    • pigmented/dark: septate of the dematiceous fungi
    • Septate: non pigmented hyphae of the hyaline molds
  34. These fungi are cottony, wooly, powdery, or fluffy and have an optimum temperature of 25-30oC.
  35. These fungi are smooth, pasty, mucoid, and butyraceous, they have an optimum temperature of 35-37oC.
  36. these fungi possess both mold and yeast phases.
    dimorphic fungi
  37. What are the six medically important dimorphic fungi?
    • H. capsulatum
    • B. dermatidis
    • P. marneffei
    • C. immitis
    • P. brasiliensis
    • S. schenkii
  38. Which medically important dimorphic fungi is thermally dimorphic?
    C. immitis
  39. Dimorphic fungi in this phase produce delicate hyphae, <1-2 mm, this form of colonies have cobwebs or hair like appearance.
    mold/mycelial/saprophytic phase
  40. Dimorphic fungi in this pahse can grow on media with cyclohexamide or antifungal.
    yeast/tissue/parasitic phase
  41. This is when fungi have a dark pigment.
  42. This is when fungi have an absence of color.
  43. Battery recommendations for growth of fungi is with or without ________, with or without __________, and antibacterial agents.
    • blood
    • cycloheximide
  44. What size culture tubes are recommended for growth of fungi?
    large culture tubes (150x25mm)
  45. What are three advantages of large culture tubes?
    • easily stored, less space
    • easily handeled, less hazardous
    • lower dehydration
  46. What are two disadvantages of large culture tubes?
    • poor isolation
    • reduced surface for growth
  47. ______ plugged tubes are unsatisfactory for growth of fungi.
  48. what are three advantages of petri-dishes for growth of fungi?
    • provide larger surface of growth
    • mixed culture easier to separate
    • provide maximum aeration
  49. what are two disadvantages of petri-dishes for growth of fungi?
    • tendency to dehydrate during incubation
    • hazardous for cultivation of certain systemic mycoses
  50. What are the three systemic mycoses that are hazardous for cultivation on petri-dishes?
    • histoplasma
    • blastomyces
    • coccidioides
  51. what is the BHI agar used for primary recovery of fungi?
    BHI agar w/out and with antibiotics
  52. What are the two antibiotics added to make media selective for fungi?
    • Chlorampenicol
    • Cycloheximide
  53. What is the broad spectrum, bacteriostatic antibiotic used to make media selective for fungi?
  54. What is the inhibitory antibiotic that also inhibits saprophytic fungi?
  55. mold/fungi should be incubated at what temperature on the BHI agar?
  56. yeast should be incubated at what temperature on the BHI agar?
  57. BHI agar is used for recovery of _________ and _________ fungi.
    • saprobic
    • pathogenic
  58. SABHI agar is used for isolation of significant fungi from __________ specimen (i.e. sputum)
    mixed flora
  59. SABHI agar is used for isolation of _________ and pathogenic fungi.
  60. This fungus selection agar is also used for isolation from specimen with normal flora for _________.
  61. this medium is selective for dermatophytes for screening purposes only.
    dermatophyte test medium (DTM)
  62. Dermatophytes infect what three parts of the body?
    • skin
    • hair
    • nails
  63. this agar is used for nutritionally deficient C. albicans which produce chlamydospores.
    corn meal agar
  64. This agar is used for differential ID of aspergillus species.
    Czapek's agar
  65. All mold cultures and clinical specimens must be handled in what class BSC?
    class II
  66. Spore and hyphae stain gram ________.
  67. Candida albicans appear as what color in grams stain?
  68. what percent KOH is used for direct microscopic examination of fungi?
  69. this is used for demonstrating fungal hyphae and spores in clinical material.
    Potassium hydroxide (KOH)
  70. KOH clears opaque material and hydrolyzes the _________ in epithelium.
  71. This is used to detect mycoses in infected hairs by fluorescing a bright, yellow-green light
    Wood's black light
  72. before using a wood's black light the affected skin should be washed with what?
    70% isopropanol
  73. _____ may accelerate clearing process in KOH (may be overdone).
  74. under KOH examination hyphae demonstrate what?
    uniformity in size and symmetry
  75. these appear as branching hyphae, occasional arthrospores in KOH.
  76. These appear as short, stubby hyphal elements and grape-like clusters of spores in KOH.
    Tinea versicolor
  77. This appears as pseudohyphaer and chlamydospores/blastospores in KOH.
  78. Hyphae do not grow __________ (e.g. sharp acute or right angles)
  79. Fungal morphology using ______ mounts is the basis of textbook descriptions of fungi.
  80. This stain, used for fungi, is fungicidal and sporicidal
    Lactophenol Cotton Blue (LCB) stain
  81. Fungal mycelium and fruiting structures take on what color in the LCB stain?
    delicate light blue color
  82. What are the two types of negative stains?
    • india ink
    • nigrosin stain
  83. Negative stain is routinely utilized for staining what?
  84. Negative stain demonstrate large capsules enveloping bastospres of what organism?
    Cryptococcus neoformans
  85. The germ tube test is used to ID what organism?
    Candida albicans
  86. What is the reagent used in the germ tube test?
    0.5 ml serum (human, rabbit, bovine)
  87. the germ tube test should be incubated for how long at 35oC.
    2 hours
  88. the germ tube test is not valid if examined after __ hours.
  89. in this test yeast species are differentiated based on carbon and nitrogen usage.
    Yeast assimilation test
  90. if the yeast assimilation test is positive it will show what?
    growth or turbidity
  91. what are the three commercial kits used for yeast assimilation test?
    • API 20C
    • Vitek yeast card
    • YT microplate
  92. This fungi test consists of an organism suspension plus carbohydrate, if positive it will show gas bubbles.
    yeast fermentation test
  93. This test is rarely used because it has a long incubation and has been replaced with the assimilation test, used as a backup.
    Yeat fermentation test.
  94. this test was designed for microscopic examination of fungi in its natural state, dermatophytes only.
    Slide technique
  95. What are the two materials used in the slide technique for fungi?
    • SAB-DEX medium
    • Long coverslip (sterile)
  96. What is the fungi stain used for the slide culture procedure?
    LCB stain
  97. This fungi procedure uses dissecting needles or pointed applicator sticks to dig out small portion of colony to be examined and tease it apart.
    tease mount
  98. doing this to colonies disrupts delicate fruiting structures of filamentous molds.
  99. This fungi preparation is better suited to preserve spore arrangements, especially delicate filamentous molds.
    scotch tape preparation
  100. The scotch tape prepartion procedure can be used from what two sources.
    • culture
    • skin
  101. the scotch tape prepartion can be used from skin for the diagnosis of what?
    tinea versicolor
  102. this stain is used to detect fungi and fungal elements, nocardia spp. do not stain well.
    periodic acid schiff (PAS)
  103. This stain is used with a fluorescence microscope along with KOH. fungal elements show apple-green or blue-white fluorescence.
    calcocluor white
  104. This type of mycoses causes superficial scaling and rarely invades depper tissues.
    Cutaneous mycoses (sperficial)
  105. Cutaneous mycoses demonstrate __________ and _________ only.
    • hyphae
    • arthrospores
  106. clinical types of cutaneous mycoses are designated by __________ binomia.
    latin (tinea capitis)
  107. This is the most important cause of tinea capitis in school children.
    Microsporum audounii
  108. This is spread by direct contact with infected haris on caps, hats, combs, clippers, causes hair to fluoresce.
    Tinea capitis
  109. This causes an inflammatory Tinea capitis, zoophilic, ususally acquired from puppies and kittens.
    Microsporum canis
  110. This is the most common species of fungi isolated, causes T. barbae, T. capitis, T. corporis, T. pedis, and onychomycosis.
    Trichophyton mentagrophytes
  111. This is the second most common fungal species isolated, causes T. pedis, T. corporis, T. cruris, onychromycosis.
    Trichophyton rubrum
  112. This is the causative organism of Tinea versicolor.
    Malassezia furfur
  113. This causes T. corporis and T. capitis recovered from hair and skin.
    Microsporum gypseum
  114. This organism is associdated with tinea cruris and Tinea pedis.
    epidermophyton flocossum
  115. This organism is associated with cutaneous candidiasis/moniliasis, systemic dx in immune compromised, and Thrush.
    Candida albicans
  116. this type of mycoses is caused by fungi inhabiting soil/decaying vegetation, usually induced by trauma. Some individuals predisposed to systemic infections.
    Subcutaneous mycoses
  117. This organism is hazardous to gardeners, florists, causes sporotrichosis or "rose gardener's dx"
    Sporothrix schenckii
  118. This type of mycoses is soid fungi involved, and causes infections due to inhalation of spores, disseminated forms invade organs.
    Systemic (deep) mycoses
  119. This is the causative organism of coccidiomycosis or "Valley fever".
    Coccidioides immitis
  120. This is the causative organism of histoplasmosis, or "Spelunker's dx," found in bat and pigeon droppings.
    Histoplasma capsulatum
  121. This organims is often confused with Leishmania because it has a similar morphology and found in RE system.
    Histoplasma capsulatum
  122. This organism causes blastomycosis.
    Blastomyces dermatitidis
  123. This organism causes paracoccidiomycosis.
    Paracoccidoides brasiliensis
  124. These are nonpathogenic fungus that cause subcutaneous and disseminated infection in immunosuppressed or debilitated patients.
    opportunistic mycoses
  125. What is the treatment for opportunistic mycoses?
    • corticosteroids
    • cytotoxic drugs
    • antimicrobials
  126. This is an opportunistic mycoses that produces large, ribbon-like hyphae, ID by presence/absence of rhizoids, structure and position.
  127. What are the three commonly encountered zygomycetes?
    • Rhizopus
    • mucor
    • absidia
  128. this opportunistic mycoses caues cryptococcosis.
    cryptococcus neoformans
  129. This opportunistic mycoses causes aspergillosis, and is the most frequently encountered fungus in the lab.
  130. What is the most common species of Aspergillus?
    A. fumigatus
  131. this opportunistic mycoses is isolated from mucocutaneous infection to disseminated infection.
    penicillium marneffei