Biodiversity exam 2

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Author:
AlainaAnn
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42002
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Biodiversity exam 2
Updated:
2010-10-13 22:05:22
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plants
Folders:

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what he said is on the test
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  1. which plant provided the first camera flash
    lycopodia spores
  2. what is the most primitive vascular plant?
    Psilotum (wisk fern)only stems. No leaves or roots.
  3. Lycopodium common name
    Club moss
  4. Selaginella common name
    Spike moss
  5. Psilotum common name
    Whisk fern
  6. Equisetum common name
    horsetail
  7. In the life cycle of mosses, which stage is
    termed Protonema?
    First stage in the development of a moss gametophyte (will look like algae)
  8. Fern gametophyte
    prothallus
  9. Homosporous
    All spores are the same
  10. Heterosporous
    Male and female spores. Microspores and megaspores (Selaginella and Isoetes)
  11. Are seed plants homosporous or heterosporous?
    All are heterosporous
  12. Which fern allies have a subterranean
    gametophyte?
    Psilotum (whisk fern), Lycopodium (club moss)
  13. Which fern allies have silicon in their cell
    walls?
    Equisetum (horse tails, scouring rushes). Cells filled with silicon
  14. What is a microphyll?
    Male spore
  15. What is a megaphyll?
    Female spore
  16. What is a frond? Which plant does it apply to?
    A complex leaf on a fern which is responsible for photosynthesis and reproduction. Spores are produced under the frond.
  17. What is a strobili?
    A cone structure where spores are born. On lycopodium (club mosses)
  18. What is a sorus?
    Clusters of spore-producing sporangia located on the underside of fronds (the leaves of ferns)
  19. What is an indusium?
    A covering of the sorus (on the fronds of ferns). Is a sterile area
  20. What does Annulus mean?
    Responsible for spreading and projecting spores in ferns. A ring or group of thick wall cells around the sporangia of many ferns that function in spore release
  21. What is the importance of peat moss?
    commercially, peat moss is used as fuel, soil conditioner, by florists
  22. What is an Antheridia?
    The male gametophyte (haploid). Produces sperm
  23. What is an archegonia?
    The female gametophyte (haploid). Contains an egg
  24. Gymnosperm means _____ translated.
    Naked seed
  25. Which seed plants still have flagellated swimming
    sperm?
    Cycads and ginkophyta
  26. What is the history behind ginkos?
    They are extinct in nature. Preserved only because monks in China (??) liked them and build them around monestaries. They are used as medicine (enhances memory. Is an anti-age cerebral)
  27. Define fruit
    • Mature ovary with its seeds.
    • Either simple (from a single ovary), or
    • compound (from many ovaries fusing together)
  28. Define seed
    the fertilized ripened ovule of a flowering plant containing an embryo and capable normally of germination to produce a new plant
  29. Define resin? Where do you find it?
    Resin is located in the wood. Resin has antibacterial and antifungal properties to prevent infection in trees.
  30. What is the difference between woody and
    herbaceous
    • herbacious plants - leaves and stems die at the
    • end of the growing season (annual, perrenial, and biennial)
    • woody plants- perrenial. stems and branches always growing throughout the year
  31. Which group is called living fossils and why?
    Cycadophyta, because they date back 200 million years to the Jurassic period
  32. What is the difference between hard wood and
    soft wood?
    • Soft wood trees (ex. Conifers). Lack thick walls and xylem cells.
    • Hard wood trees (angiosperms)
  33. What is the difference between homosporous and
    heterosporous? What does it refer to?
    • Homosporous means that all spores are the same. (lycopodium)
    • Heterosporous means that there are Male and female spores. Microspores and megaspores (Selaginella and Isoetes), and all flowering plants
  34. Is pollination the same as fertilization?
    Pollination is the transfer of pollen grains. Fertilization is the sperm actually reaching the egg. They are not the same
  35. What are the parts of a flower?
    • Pistil- female reproduction
    • Stigma- receptive part. Receives pollen
    • Style- neck
    • Ovary- contains seeds. Has ovules (unfertilized egg)
    • Stamen- male reproductive part. Contains Anther and filament
    • Sepal- green, leaf-like below petal
    • Petals- attract pollinator
    • Receptacle- stem or point of attachment for all of the flower parts
  36. What does complete mean (in reference to
    flowers)?
    Have all parts of the flower
  37. What does incomplete mean (in reference to
    flowers)?
    Missing one or more parts of the flower
  38. What does perfect mean (in reference to
    flowers)?
    Have both male and female parts
  39. What does imperfect mean (in reference to
    flowers)?
    • Have only one sex.
    • Pisillate- female only
    • Staminate- male only
  40. What does monoecious mean?
    produces both male and female parts on the same plant. Ex: conifers
  41. What does dioecious mean?
    Each plant is either male or female, but not both
  42. What is a drupe?
    • Fleshy fruit with hard or stony endocarp
    • Cherry, peach, plum, apricots
  43. What is a pepo?
    • Fleshy fruit when outer ring is hard, endocarp is not divisible into sections
    • Watermelon, cucumber, cantaloupe
  44. What is a hesperidium?
    • Pericarp divided into many layers
    • Lemon, lime, orange
  45. What is a berry?
    • Fleshy fruit which all three layers are succulent, juicy
    • Grape, tomato, blueberry
  46. What is a legume?
    A dry fruit. (beans, peas)
  47. What does the term thallus refer to?
    The gametophyte of the true fern (pterophyta). Contains archegonia and antheridia
  48. What does dehiscent mean? (with regards to
    fruits)
    • Weakened area so seeds fall out
    • Legume (pod like and splits on both sides) (pea, peanut)
    • Capsule (splits by pores or circular openings) (brazil nut)
    • Follicle (splits on one side only)
    • Schizocarp (splitting fruit)(okra pod)
  49. What does indehiscent mean? (with regards to
    fruits)
    • Ovary wall doesn’t split open naturally and must decay. Split on predetermined line
    • Caryopsis-grain (ovary wall fused to seed. Cannot
    • separate)
    • Achene- (single seeded fruit not fused to
    • ovary wall) (sunflower seed)
    • Nut-( entire pericarp is hard. Doesn’t permit
    • seed to escape. Single seeded. Seed germinates inside and pushes out) (walnut,
    • coconut)
  50. What does deciduous mean?
    Trees lose their leaves in winter
  51. What is a monocot?
    • One cotyledon
    • Parallel veins
    • Petals and sepals in multiples of 3
    • Fibrous root system
    • Stems have scattered vascular bundles
    • No true woody monocots
  52. What is a dicot?
    • Two cotyledons
    • Netted veins
    • Petals and sepals in multiples of 4 or 5
    • Primary root system
    • Concentric rings of vascular tissue
    • Both herbivorous and woody
  53. What is endosperm?
    Stored food for the embryo that will eventually become caryledon
  54. What is the life cycle of a fern?
    A diploid zygote matures into a sporophyte that contain sporangium. When the sporangium mature, they release spores. (Not too sure about the next part). The spores mature into either an archegonium (femal) or antheridia (male). The male sperm will fertilize the female archegonium (egg) which will create a diploid zygote again!
  55. When haploid, ferns are in the ________ stage
    Gametophyte. Spores produced are gametophyte.
  56. When diploid, ferns are in the
    __________ stage
    Sporophyte. When sperm fertilizes the egg, it becomes a sporophyte

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