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2010-12-06 23:11:33
humanities midterm study guide

Humanities I
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  1. The six characteristics a peoples must have to be considered civilized
    • 1. Some form of urban life involving the construction of permanent settlements.
    • 2. A system of government that regulates political relations.
    • 3. The development of distinct Social classes. (segregated by wealth and occupation)
    • 4. Tools and specialized skills for production of goods.
    • 5. Some form of written communication.
    • 6. A shared system of religious belief.
  2. The paleolithic period is characterized by:
    People were dominated by the physical forces of geography and climate, able to keep themselves alive only by a persistent search for food and shelter.
  3. Who were the first people to bury their dead?
    The Neanderthal people were the first to bury their dead carefully and place funerary offerings in the graves. THe earliest indication of religious beliefs.
  4. When was the invention of visual art?
    15,000 BCE with the paintings of Lascaux and Altimira and with statues like the Venus of Willendorf.
  5. Venus of Willendorf 28,000 - 23,000 BCE. One of a series of female figurines known as Venus figures. made of limestone 11cm high.
  6. What were the Paleolithic people's view towards women?
    Paleolithic people perhaps viewed women's practical role--the source of birth and life-- as symbolic of a more profound feminine force that underlay the masculine world of the hunt.
  7. What was the cause of the first wars in human history?
    In the Neolithic period, people began to gather together in villages and store food, but the stored food became a motive for raids by neighboring communities.
  8. Hall of the Bulls, 15,000-13,000 BCE in the Lascaux Caves hidden in the dark uninhabited recesses of the cave.
  9. What are the two major periods of the history of Mesopitamia?
    The Sumerian period (3500-2350 BCE) and the Semitic period (2350-612 BCE)
  10. What was and who invented the first form of writing?
    The first form of writing was invented by the Sumerian culture and was called Cuneiform. It was a system of pictographs.
  11. Describe some characteristics of the religious beliefs of the Sumerian culture.
    They were polytheistic and their gods were manifested in natural phenomena, sky, Earth, sun, Moon, Lightning, and storm. Holidays were linked to the changing seasons. New Years festival where the great mother and her partner Tammuz the people expressed hope that the renewal of their marriage would amke for a good years harvest.
  12. Who ruled the Sumerian people?
    Their rulers were at the hands of the priests who controlled the religious and economic affairs of their cities. The ruler served as a representative on the Earth of the god of the city. The priest was never though to be of divine origin however.
  13. What is the first great literary work of Mesopotamia?
    The Epic of Gilgamesh.
  14. How do modern scholars traditionally divide the history of ancient Egypt?
    Into Four periods: Early, Middle, New, and Late.
  15. Which War provided the background for Homer's Illiad and Odyssey?
    The Trojan War
  16. Briefly summarize the Epic of Gilgamesh.
    Written in 2000 BCE, Gilgamesh is a Famous Sumerian ruler at Uruk around 2700 BCE, his best friend was Enkidu. Gilgamesh is courted by the queen of heaven Ishitar, but he rejects her advances and in revenge she kills Enkidu. Now Gilgamesh sets out to find the meaning of life.
  17. How did the Mesopotamians and the Egyptians view death?
    The Mesopotamians viewed death as a bleak darkness while Egyptians say the afterlife as a happy place as long as they were righteous.
  18. An Akkadian ruler 2200 BCE Iraq bronze.
  19. When was the rule of the Semitic King Sargon?
    2350-2150 BCE and the whole Mesopotamia fell under his control.
  20. What were the large brick platforms with superimposed terraces in Iraq called and what were they for?
    They were called Ziggurats and they were made to be artificial mountain tops, a place where the gods were thought to reveal themselves.
  21. What was the ruler Hammurabi famous for?
    He was famous for The Law Code of Hammurabi, most of the provisions in this code dealt with the relationship between husband and wife. and other family members.
  22. The Egyptian culture had how many dynasties?
    the Egyptian history is divided into 31 dynasties by an egyptian priest Manetho who wrote the history of Egypt in 280 BCE.
  23. What were the divisions of the Egyptian periods?
    • The four main divisions of the Egyptian periods were:
    • Old Kingdom 2700BCE
    • Middle Kingdom 1990 BCE
    • New Kingdom 1570 BCE
    • Late Period 1185BCE
  24. Who ruled the Egyptian people?
    The Pharaoh who was regarded as a living god, the equal of any other deity. He had absolute power, although the execution of his orders depended on a large official Bureaucracy whose influence tended to increase in time.
  25. What book described the funeral rites together with their meanings in ancient Egyptian culture?
    The Book of the Dead and the god that presided over the ceremonies was Osiris.
  26. The huge scale of Egyptian works of art is at least in part the result of what?
    The easy access of stone, the most frequently used material from the early Old Kingdom to the Late Period.
  27. Under what Dynasty and what architect designed and built the earliest pyramid?
    In the Dynasty III the architect Imhotep used stone to construct the earliest pyramid as a tomb for his master the pharaoh Zoser.
  28. Under what Dynasty were the Great Pyramids of Giza constructed?
    Dynasty IV (4) for the pharaohs Cheops, Chefren, and Mycerinus.
  29. Who is attributed with the construction of the Sphinx?
    The Pharaoh Chefren. It guards his tomb.
  30. Who reformed Egyptian religion, replacing the multitude of Egyptian gods with just the one sun god Atan-Ra?
    Pharaoh Akhenaton in the Dynasty XVIII (18)
  31. What was Tutankhamen famous for?
    Primarily for the treasures found in his tomb when it was discovered by Howard Cater in 1922.
  32. What function did the Cycladic Idols have for the Cycladic people?
    The may have been used for funeral rituals because many have been found in graves.
  33. Who was the most famous ruler of the Minoan people from which they get their name?
    King Minos who ruled at Knossos.
  34. Who discovered the mythical King Minos and his temple thus proving that they really existed.
    Arthur Evans on March 23, 1900.
  35. How many periods were the Minoans history divided into?
    Early Minoan, Middle Minoan, and Late Minoan.
  36. What are some characteristics of Minoan art?
    • Less focus on monuments and more on small detailed art like the Wasp Pendant.
    • Brilliantly painted pottery and colorful fresco's
  37. Who was the central figure in Minoan religion?
    The snake goddess. Although there were several other female goddesses.
  38. What culture in Greek mythology waged war with the Trojans and was later revealed to be a real civilization?
    The Mycenaeans, named after their central city of Mycenae.
  39. When was the Trojan war?
    1250 BCE.
  40. Who discovered the Mycenaean cultural remains and that of Troy?
    Hienrich Schliemann in 1873.
  41. What is the Mycenaean art characterized by?
    Mycenaean art is characterized by art that was preoccupied with death and war.
  42. How many ages/periods were there in early Greek History?
    The Heroic/Iron age, the Age of Colonization, the Archaic period, and the Classical period.
  43. What is the setting of the Iliad?
    The Iliad takes place during the final year of the Greek's siege of Troy.
  44. What pattern on early Greek vases looks like a maze?
    Its called a "Meander."
  45. What caused the "Age of Colonization?"
    A number of the aristocrats where getting wealthy, and the populations of the cities was too great. Colonization was inevitable.
  46. What period is characterized in Greece for its heavy influx of oriental art and goods?
  47. What period in Greek history is characterized by the slow approach to realism in the Greek art?
    The Archaic period when the Greeks began to be influenced by Egyptian art. Though the art wasn't perfectly realistic as in the Classical period, it was shedding the geometric style.
  48. In the story of the Odyssey who does the author invoke the aide of at the beginning of the story?
    A muse.
  49. In the Odyssey, who is the first person Athena disguises herself as?
  50. Nestor is king of _____ and Menelaus is king of_____ in the story of the Odyssey.
    Nestor is king of Pylos, and Menelaus is king of Sparta.
  51. Why didn't Odysseus kill Polyphemus when he fell asleep?
    Because Polyphemus was the only one who could remove the boulder in the cave.
  52. What was the Greek "polis?"
    The word polis means city-state.
  53. What is a lyric verse?
    Poetry which conveys personal feelings.
  54. What name is given to the period of Greek history between the Persian wars and Alexander the Great?
    The Classical Period.
  55. Which leader is most associated with he achievement of the Athenian Golden Age?
  56. Greek term for excessive pride and ambition leading to self-destruction.
  57. Where did the Sumerians first settle?
    The Fertile Crecent
  58. Who succeeded the Minoans?
    The Mycenaeans
  59. What was an important basis for Corinth's political and economic strength during the sixth century BCE?
  60. Who was the first Greek historian (i.e. the "Father of History")
  61. Peplos Kore c. 530 BCE marble 4' tall.
  62. Kouros c. 530 BCE marble 6'4" tall.
  63. What was the realistic art in the Archaic period called (the Kore and Kouros fall under this category).
    Kouroi was a formalized form of the early Archaic period with flat planes and rigid stances.
  64. What sculpture marks the turning point of the Archaic period and the beginning of the classical period?
    Kritios Boy c. 490 BCE
  65. What name is given to the period of Greek History immediately following the classical period?
    The Hellenistic Period.
  66. What philosopher said that one cannot step in the same river twice?
  67. Which war brought about the downfall of Athens?
    The Peloponnesian War
  68. What word does Aristotle use to describe as the "cleansing" effect of viewing a tragedy?
  69. What order of columns is characterized by a simple design with a square top abacus?
    The Doric order.
  70. What order of columns is characterized by a detailed abacus at the top and a base at the bottom for the column?
    The Ionic Order of columns.
  71. An elaborate seven stringed lyre Terpander from Lesbos used in 675 BCE
    a Cithara, was used to accompany vocal music on cerimonial occasions.
  72. what were the two important modes of music in early Greece?
    The Dorian mode which was firm, powerful, and ever war like. And the Phrygian mode which produced passionate, sensual emotions.
  73. What female Greek lyric poet was the first female to leave a literary record that reflects her personal feelings. Also her works had somewhat of a homosexual allure.
    Sappho who was born on the island of Lesbos around 612 BCE.
  74. What does the word Philosophy mean in Greek?
    Love of Wisdom
  75. What was one of the earliest schools of philosophy in the Archaic period in Greece?
    The earliest school of the Pre-Socratics is the school of the materialists who sought to explain all phenomena in terms of one or more elements.
  76. Who was a popular materialist philosopher who postulated that water alone underlay the changing of nature. He also calculated the height of the pyramids and successfully predicted an eclipse.
    Thales of Miletus (c.585 BCE)
  77. What school of philosophy claimed that there existed two separate universes: the world around us, which was subject to constant change and another ideal world, perfect and unchanging which can only be realized through intellect.
    Dualists. Chief Proponent was Heraclitus
  78. Pre-Socratic school that believed the ultimate unchangeable reality consisted of atoms and the void.
    The Atomists led by Leucippus and Democritus.
  79. What Greek ruler is attributed with the unification of the Greek city-states into one unified nation in 338 BCE(with the exception of Sparta).
    Philip in Macedon
  80. What is the Classical Ideal for the Greeks?
    The Classical Ideal was that existence can be ordered and controlled, that human ability can triumph over the apparent chaos of the natural world and crate a balanced society.
  81. What is the Delian League?
    It was a confederation of Greek city-states that pooled money in an effort to defend themselves after the Persian War. Athens was head of the league, but the league was undone when it was discovered that the money was transfered to Athens and used in construction projects including the Parthenon.
  82. Who was Thucydides?
    He was a Politician and a general during the Peloponnesian War but after he condemned for his absence during a fight he wrote the History of the Peloponnesian War.
  83. Who wrote Oedipus The King?
  84. Greek word for intellectual miscalculation.
  85. Who were the three most famous philosophers of the late classical period?
    Socrates, his pupil Plato and Plato's pupil Aristotle.
  86. What were the three works by Plato that described Socrates' last days?
    The Apology which is set during the trial of Socrates, The Crito, which takes place while he is in prison when he explains why he won't try to escape, and finally The Phaedo that gives and account of his last days explaining to his friends the immortality of the soul and his death.
  87. What is the doctrine of ethos as it pertained to the Classical Greeks?
    The belief whereby music had the power to influence human behavior.
  88. What Greek artist in the Classical period is responsible for the use of a mathematical formula for representing a perfect male body?
    Polykleitos of Agros
  89. Who was the Pantheon dedicated to and how was it paid for?
    It was dedicated to Athena, the goddess that presided over the city and it was paid for by money taken from the Delian Leagues treasury.
  90. Praxiteles Hermes with Infant Dionysus c. 340 BCE marble 7'1"
  91. What caused the divide of the Greek empire during the Hellenistic period?
    The death of Alexander the Great and the inability of the Alexanders' generals' to agree on a successor.
  92. Agesander, Athenodorus, and Polydorus of Rhodes Laocoon, marble 7' 10 1/2"
  93. According to the Bible, who was the father (patriarch) of the Hebrews?
  94. Who were the most important kings of the United Monarchy of Canaan?
    Saul, David, and Solomon.
  95. How is the Hebrew Bible divided?
    The Law, the Prophets, and the Writings
  96. What is the Septuagint?
    A Greek Translation of the Old Testament.
  97. What famous church was built in Rome during the reign of the Emperor Constantine?
    Saint Peter's Basilica
  98. What is responsorial Singing?
    Singing in which the congregation responds to the cantor's lines.
  99. How did Romans view themselves in the world stage?
    They viewed themselves as the divinely appointed rulers of the world.
  100. What are the major two periods in Roman History?
    Republican Rome, and Imperial Rome.
  101. What culture occupied Rome before it was the great empire we know it was today?
    The Etruscans.
  102. Early Roman people were divided into two distinct classes....
    The upper class the Patricians, and the lower class the Plebeians.
  103. Two Roman comic playwrights whose works have survived in quantity to this day.
    Plautus (254-184) and Terence (185-159)
  104. What were the two principle schools of Roman Philosophy.
    Epicureanism and Stoicism, which focused more on expounding Greek philosophy to a Roman audience.
  105. What was the cheif difference between Stoicism and Epicureanism?
    In Epicureanism there was a belief that all things in nature were caused by random swervings in space and not by divine intervention. Stoicism on the other hand believed that one should maintain a healthy belief in the gods and their ability to guide human fortune.
  106. What was the Romans single unified code of civil law?
    the Ius Civile
  107. What were the chief themes of Emperor Augustus' polotics?
    The return to peace, the importance of the land and agriculture, the putting aside of ostentation and luxury in favor of a simple life, and above all, the belief in Rome's destiny as world ruler.
  108. What was Virgil's most profound book and what was it about?
    It was called the Aeneid and it was about a Trojan prince Aeneas who was born in Troy and sailed to to Italy to found the city of Rome.
  109. The Ara Pacis Augustae was dedicated to what?
    The spirit of peace.
  110. Why is the city of Pompeii so important?
    Because it shows us how ordinary Pompeian lived and worked.
  111. The city of Rome was the subject of Satire by what Author?
  112. Augustus of Prima Porta c. 20 BCE marble copy of bronze original.
  113. Arch of Titus c. 81 CE marble
  114. What are the six stages of Hebrew history?
    • The period of the Patriarchs
    • The period of the Exodus
    • The period of the Conquest
    • The United Monarchy
    • Divided Kingdom and Exile
    • The Return
  115. What does prophet mean in greek?
    One who speaks for another
  116. What is the crucial concept for setting out the relationship between God and the Hebrew people.
    The covenant
  117. Who designated the city of Byzantium to be the new eastern capitol of Rome and what was the cities name changed to?
    Emperor Constantine designated it in 330 CE and the city name was changed to Constantinople.
  118. Who was the greatest writer of the Christian Latin West in the 4th century?
    Augustine of Hippo
  119. What where the two major writings Augustine of Hippo was known for?
    The City of God, and The Confessions
  120. Who wrote The Consolation of Philosophy that tackled the problem of an all-knowing God and free will?
  121. Who commissioned the work on Hagia Sophia?
    Emperor Justinian
  122. Why was light such an important feature at Hagia Sophia?
    Because light is the symbol of divine wisdom in the philosophy of Plato and the new testament.
  123. The Greek codex of the New Testament was discovered by Konstantinvon Tichendorf where?
    Saint Catherine's Monastery in the desert of the Sinai in the nineteenth century.
  124. Iconic paintings were done in a style that used molten wax which was colored by pigments.
    Encaustic style.
  125. Who was the founder of Islam?
    Muhammad, born in Mecca in 570 CE.
  126. The muslim calendar begans in the year 622 symbolically for the occasion of....
    When Muhammad was forced to flee the city of Mecca.
  127. What are the five pillars of Islam?
    • 1. The idea that there is only one God and Muhammad is his messenger.
    • 2. The obligation to pray 5 times a day in a direction that points to the Ka'aba in Mecca. Later the olbigation to attend friday prayers as a community and hear a sermon.
    • 3. To donate a portion of the surplus of one's wealth to a charity.
    • 4. To fast during the holy month of Ramadan, a total abstinence of all food and drink from sunrise to sunset. 5. To make a pilgrimage to Mecca (called the Haj) at least once in a lifetime.
  128. What is the Qur'an?
    The Qur'an is copulation of all the oral revelations from Muhammad while in Mecca and Medina.
  129. How is the Qur'an outlined?
    The Qur'an is diviede into 114 chapters called "suras."
  130. When a Muslim country adopts Islamic law, then they are said to actually referring to what law code?
    Shari'a law.
  131. What are the two major branches of Islam?
    The Sunni's which hold the vast majority and the Shi'a.
  132. What was Saint Rabia famous for?
    She was famous for her devotion to God through a highly developed love for God.
  133. Who was the most famous mathematician at the house of wisdom in Baghdad?
  134. How did Charlemagne gain access to Christian holy places in Muslim held Palestine?
    He requested them from Harun al-Rashid and Harun gave him access and offered him gifts as well.
  135. What was the name of the currency used in Charlemagne's Empire?
    It was called the Denier and was widely used all over Europe.
  136. Who did Charlemagne hire for his new school in Aachen?
    Peter of Pisa, Paul the Deacon taught grammar and rhetoric. Theodulf of Orleans and finally Alcuin of York who was a famous intellectual and monk.
  137. What was the primary purpose of Charlemagne's schools?
    To develop literacy among the young. Also taught the seven liberal arts; grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy.
  138. Who was the most important figure that set up the schools and created their curriculum in Charlemagne's empire?
    Alcuin of York
  139. What saint standardized with Charlemagne's help the daily lives of monks?
    Benedict of Nursia
  140. Who was the most famous female in the history of monasticism?
    Hildegard of Bingen
  141. What is Melisma?
    An extensive addition of a chain of intricate notes sung on the vowel sound of a final syllable. Example, it might elaborate the final "a" in Alleluia.
  142. What glorious song came out of Charlemagne's memory that was used time and again to motivate troops and kings for battle?
    The Song of Roland
  143. What writting technique made written works more legible in Carolingian period?
    The minuscule style, as opposed to majuscule or capital letters.
  144. The church of Saint Denis was intended by Suger to rival what other church?
    Hagia Sophia
  145. What does the word Gothic mean in reference to the era when the great Gothic churches were built?
    Gothic at that time meant barbarous or rude because those churches didn't follow the Greek or Roman styles.
  146. What was the most famous of the Gothic cathedrals?
    The Chartres Cathedral in Chartres France.
  147. What were the purposes of the Gargoyles on cathedrals?
    The purpose of the gargoyles was to act as drains to funnel off rain water and also to symbolize evil spirits fleeing the church.
  148. What was the name of one of the master builders of Chartres?
    Villard de Honnecourt who's personal notebook has been compared with that of Leonardo Da Vinci.
  149. What were some of the factors that led to the rapid rise of institutions in the high middle ages?
    The complexity of urban life created a demand for an educated class who could join the ranks of administrators and bureaucrats. Another reason was that a large influx of scientific and mathematical information was coming from the middle east.
  150. What was a universitas?
    A universitas was similar to a guild or corporation that oversaw the quality of the teaching at the school.
  151. Thomas Aquinas tackles the problem between faith and reason in his great work called what?
    Summa Theologica
  152. From who did Thomas Aquinas draw from when writing and compiling his writings and arguments?
  153. What was one of the beliefs of Francis of Assisi
    That a life of perfect freedom as a life of poverty.