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old school beliefs regarding religion?
- 1. polytheists
- 2. gods act on whim, ambenevolent
- 3. people must please/appease gods via sacrifice (humans, animals, food)
shift of beliefs, new school?
- 1. monotheists (muslim, hebrews, christians)
- 2. benevolent (kind, loving) all knowing, powerful
- 3. live moral lives
define moral freedom
the ability/capacity to choose between right and wrong
discuss morality and ethics.
morals - how you treat yourself
ethics - how you treat others
what ideas contributed to the monotheist concept of individual worth?
Individual = under gods image, divine spark, dignity that can't ever be taken away
how is individual worth expressed in democracy?
1. one QP= one vote
2. vote or conscience
relate moral freedom to laws
without beliefs of ability to choose right or wrong, no accountability
2 ways roman empire helped spread christianity
2. constantine - 380 A.D. made it official language of Roman empire
- based of teachings of Muhammad
- early 600's
legacy of monotheistic religions to democracy
- -Duty of individuals to combat oppression and justice
- -worth of individual
- -equality of people
purpose/belief/view of life in middle ages?
preparation for afterlife, service to church, accept you position
purpose of life in renaissance?
live life to the fullest
-individualism, art, explanation, buisness
religious movement lead by martin luther + protestants to reform catholic church, "paid pardons"
how did the renaissance + reformation shape democratic ideas? How?
emphasized importance of individuals, ability to question authority
by challenging authority of pope, supporting ideas that people interpret bible for themselves, direct relationship with god
What important legal practice dates back to henry II?
Trial by Jury
What did one have to do to "prove" innocence before?
survive physical test
what impact did english common law have on the united states?
its principles are the foundation for law in the U.S.
how does common law differ from Roman Law?
common law reflects the customs and principles of country
Roman law represents the will of the ruler
what were the main achievements of the glorious revolution?
Parliment's right to limit the power of the monarch + guarantee citizens rights + liberties.
name 2 basic individual rights guaranteed in the magna carta
protection under law
contract between king and nobles, limited power of king
reflected customs and principles over time... precedents, common to kingdom
due process of law
to have the law work in known and orderly ways
- -right to jury trial
- -protection under law
- -no arbitrary punishment
england's national legislature. house of commons and lords, had "power of the purse"
- -gave advice to royals
- -made laws
kings claimed their power from god, chosen by god
william and mary crowned co-rulers, parliment controls succession of throne. power is limited even more.
powers of ruler limited, "checked" by laws + constitution
Bill of rights
summary of essential rights + liberties
ex. free speech
what was englands legacy to democracy?
- -rule of law
- -parliment government
- -individual liberties
- -constitutional monarchy