Is the detection of basic stimuli from the enviroment through the sense
What specialized cells are stimulated by energy?
The process in which a form of physical energy is converted into a neural code that be processed by the nervous system
smallest possible strength of a stimulus that can be detected half the time
Just Noticeable Difference
smalles possible difference between two stimuli that can be detected half the time
The size of the JND is a constant proportion of the size of the initial stimuli
Gradual decline in sensitivity to a constant stimulus
Seasoning in food is an example of
process by which the brain organizes, interprets and relates new date to existing knowledge
Bottome Up processing
to generate a perception based on the constituent parts
Top Down Processing
TO genenrate a perception based on a concept or idea
Principles of Gestalt
Organizing stimuli into a perception
Founder of the Gestalt School
Similiar objects are viewed as a unit
Tendency to fill in the gaps
Expectaion that lines and movments will continue in a given direction
Objects that are near to one another are viewed as a part of a unit
Stimuli that are below the level of concious awareness
Does not create a profound influence on behavior or experience
Can bias a person's emotions, thought and attitudes about something temporarily
When people are repeatedly exposed to a stimulus, their liking for that stimuli increases is called?
Mere Exposure Effect
Personal awarenss of mental activity, internak sensations, and the world around us is known as?
Concieved of as a stream because it is ceasless but changing is know as?
Conciousness varies by degrees and is referred to as?
Alertness varies throught the day, when is it at its peak? when is it at its lowest?
8 or 9 am & 8 or 9 pm
3 pm and 3 am
Variations in body that occur over a 24 hour period
How many known biorhythms are there?
Biorhythms are Synchronized by which part of the brain
Considered to be the body's clock within the hypothalamus
What Keeps the body's rhythms connected with the enviroment, regulates sleep, and helps melatonin secretion?
One of the more prominant biorhythms, growth is screted during this time
What levels dimish as the day prgresses?
What causes drowsiness and when diminishes allows the person to become more alert?
How are melatonin levels regulated?
Light stimulates the optics nerve
Optic nerves are monitered by the SCN
Ones the SCN detects increased light it triggers the pineal gland to dimish melatonin production
Effect of being disconnected from indications of date, day, or hour and causes the circadian rhythm to become desunchronized?
Free running casues people to droft into the natural rhythm of the SCN which is?
25 hours lunar month
Who discovered the EEG in 1920 as wells as frequency and intensity?
Discovered the Beta and Alpha waves, sleep cycles, and REM sleep?
low intesity, very high frequency waves, relaxed in preparation of sleep
Drowsiness but not yet asleep, calm or meditative state
Mixture of beta and alpha waves
light sleep, high frequency, low intensity brain waves
Theta, and beginning of Delta waves
Sleep Spindles, burst of high frequency, high intensity brain waves
Accompanied by Myoclonic Jerk
Entry to true sleep
Some delta waves, low frequency high intesity brain waves
Deep Restorattive Sleep
a lot of Delta Waves
Rapis Eye Movement Sleep
Sleep Need across a life span
Decreaes with time
National Average 8 1/2 hrs
6 hrs by age 60
Restores the body
inability to initiate or maintain sleep
Interupted sleep Breathing
Sleep Walking, 25% of children have one episode
Brain fails to supress voluntary movement, patient acts out dreams
REM sleep behavior disorder
Sleep attacks, cataplexy, hypnogogic hallucinations, sleep attacks, and sleep paralysis
this theory dreams includes, wish fulfillment, royal road to the unconcious, Manifest content, latent content, and symbols
the obvious content in the ectual dream image
hidden contenct underlying meaning of the dream
object which representation of something repressed through unconcious association
Who devised the access to unconcious idea in which the patients reports every thought w/o omition
Freud, Free Association
A student who dreud that would be his succesor
What counts did freud and jund disagree on?
the uncocious was wise instead of bad
Dream could not be reduced to symbold of sexual conflict
Amplification instead of Free Association
Symbols that imply something more than is, and a wider unconcious aspect that is never precisely defined or fully explained
This view says each person has a personal unconcious as did freud, that dream create wholeness completion and individuation, and that each person has a collective unconcious with symbold shares among all humans
Jung's view of the unconcious
The unconcious is the oppostie of the concious mind
THe principal of opposites
Unconcious balances Conciousness
The principal of compensation
If Dream interpretation requires among other things specialized knowledge of mythology, folklore, fairy talkes, psychology of primitives, and comperative religion, it is know as/
This balance includes, anima and animus, which can be negative or positive
Male/ Female Balance
Dreams are the subjective awareness of the brains own internally generated signals
Hobson's Activation Synthesis Model
Part of the Hobson's Activation Synthesis Model, which part of the brian sends randon sensations and images from the Pons?
Part of the Activation synthesis model, which lobe assigns meaning to the sensation?
Dream are complied from the resulting stimulations such as
memories, emotions, Sensation
THe primary visual cortes and frontal lobe that have to do with logic and relaity testing is?
Inactive during dreams
this part of the brain is high active during dreams
primitive brain, amygdala and hippocampus
Freuds SUmmarized Dream theory
Dreams are symbolized expressions of the unconcious
THey can be used to identify and relieve psychosexual conflict
Jung's summarized dream theory
Dream are symbolic expressions of the unconcious
THey can be used to increase wholeness, balance, and individuation
Hobson dream theory summerized
Dreams are activated by the random stimulation from the pons
sotry line are synthesized by the cortex
Dreams mean nothing
Increasing amonunts of sunsctance needed to get the desired effect
person gets sick when the substance is discontinued
The dosage of a substance at which 50% of the tests subject die
Relatively permant change in behavior resulting from exprience
Psychologist believe all behavior is...
We begin to learn while in the...
Helpful behavior can be---- and maladaptive behavior can be----
Ivan Pavlov discovered? which means? and has to do with?
Establishing conditions under which a specific behavior is likely to occur
Reflex, a simple involuntary response to a specific stimuli
Means of eliminating a learned response, procedure involves presenting the CS without ever pairing it witht he UCS, the CR become Weaker until it disappears entirely
at some future time the subject will suddenly resume the CR, and if it is paired with the UCS is will be fully reinstated
When the extinction procesure is initiated the subject responds initially my greatly increasing the frequency of CR (things get worse before the get start working)
A well established CS can be used as an UCS to produce new Conditioned Responses
Higher Order Conditioning
a stimuli similiar to the original CS will elicit the CR
Leanirng to make fine dictinction between similiar stimuli
Factor Affecting Conditioning
Frequency and Times elapse between neutral and UCS
The first American Behaviorists, published in Hournal of Experimental Psychology, and Performed the case of Little ALbert
The case of Little Albert
Classical conditioning can be used to deliberately establish a conditioned emotional response in a human subject
Rat (NS) + Clang (UCS )=Fear (UCR)
Rat (CS )=Fear (CR)
Presents Food aversion as a Classical Conditioning
Food aversion are unique because
THey violate both rules of frequency AND time lapse
eat food once (single trial learning)
food makes htem sick hours later (Time lapse more than 1/2 a second.
an organism is innately predisposed to form
certain associations. If the particular association is not one the organism is
prepared to form then the association can be formed only with great difficulty
discovered that animal behavior patterns can be modified by controlling the consequences
of the behavior, who discovered it, and what is it?
B.F Skinner, operant Conditioning
A reinforcer is anything that causes a behavior to reoccur.
Positive reinforcement mean
an aversive stimuli, something we will act to avoid or escape. Give some examples.
Avoid something, taking pills for headache, negative reinforcer pain, take pills
Turns off behavior
Effect of punishment
– Causes retaliation
– Deteriorates relationship quality
– Results in avoidance or passive aggressive behavior
punishment works if
The subject is
smaller or less powerful than the person inflicting the punishment.
The subject can
not escape the punishment.
must continually be refreshed.
based on the number of target behaviors the
subject is required to perform before a reinforcer is given
every time the behavior occurs, it is reinforced.
Useful for skill acquisition
Fixed ratio draw backs
Expense and the tendency
for something to lose its reinforcement value.
useful for maintaining a particular behavior (motivation) behavior must increase for reinforcement
Based on passage of time
unit of time (hours,min,seconds)
Number of target Behaviors exhibited
To gain control of a behavior
Use a 1-1 continous reinforcement schedule (FR-1)
schedule constructed in the which the plan is to cary the number of target behaviors required of a subject before each reinforcement
Make the most durable behavior
subject reinforced every so many minutes, hours, days or weeks wohtout regard for number of target behavior
means the amount of time between reinforcers varies
Reinforcing close apporximation of the desired behaviors intil the target behavior is achieved, also known as succesive approximation
Focused on locus of control, the role of expectations in learning
Focused on Leanred helplessness, the role of beliefs in learning, shuttle box experiment with dogs
Focused on observational learning, the roles of schema's in learning, did bobo doll experiment
One's beleif about whi is in control over one's behavior
Locus of control
Concept of locus of control, in which the individual is in control
The external is in control
Expectations influence effort
When someone observes a behavior sequence, a schema is formed. Imitation will occur if:
Capable of doing action
Expect reinforcement for bahvior performance