Neuromuscular

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Author:
KateKern
ID:
42021
Filename:
Neuromuscular
Updated:
2010-10-18 19:40:43
Tags:
Nerves neuromuscular
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Description:
Neuromuscular System
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  1. Olfactory Nerve
    • Cranial nerve I, sensory
    • Smell
  2. Optic
    • Cranial nerve II, sensory
    • Sight
  3. Oculomotor
    • Cranial Nerve III, motor
    • Upward/downward and medial gaze
    • Reaction to light
  4. Trochlear
    • Cranial Nerve IV, motor
    • Downward and lateral gaze
  5. Trigeminal
    • Cranial Nerve V, sensory/motor
    • Facial sensation
    • Muscles of mastication
  6. Abducens
    • Cranial Nerve VI, motor
    • Lateral gaze
  7. Facial
    • Cranial Nerve VII, sensory/motor
    • Taste: anterior tongue
    • Muscles of facial expression
  8. Vestibulocochlear (Acoustic) Nerve
    • Cranial Nerve VIII, sensory
    • Ear: hearing & balance
  9. Glossopharyngeal
    • Cranial Nerve IX, sensory/motor
    • Touch, pain: posterior tongue, pharynx
    • Taste: posterior tongue
    • Gag reflex, ability to swallow
  10. Vagus
    • Cranial Nerve X, sensory/motor
    • Autonomic: thoracic and abdominal vicera
    • Gag reflex, ability to swallow, say "ahhh"
    • Throat sensation, taste
  11. Accessory
    • Cranial Nerve XI, motor
    • Sternocleidomastoid & trapezius muscles
    • Shoulder shrug
  12. Hypoglossal
    • Cranial Nerve XII, motor
    • Muscles of the tongue, voluntary
  13. Anterior Cord Syndrome
    • Incomplete lesion due to compression and damage to the anterior part of the spinal cord
    • Mechanism of injury is usually cervical flexion
    • Loss of motor function, pain & temperature sense below the lesion
  14. Brown-Sequard's Syndrome
    • Incomplete; usually caused by a stab wound
    • Paralysis, loss of vibratory & position sense on the same side as the lesion
    • Loss of pain & temperature sense on the opposite side
  15. Central Cord Syndrome
    • Incomplete; mechanism of injury is usually cervical hyperextension
    • Upper extremities are more involved than lower
    • Greater motor deficits compared to sensory
  16. Posterior Cord Syndrome
    • Rare syndrome caused by compression of the posterior spinal artery
    • Loss of pain perception, proprioception, two point discrimination, and stereognosis
    • Motor function is preserved
  17. Orthostatic Hypotension
    • A decrease in systolic BP greater than 20 mm Hg after moving from supine to sitting
    • Caused by a loss of sympathetic control of vasoconstriction and severely reduced muscle tone
  18. Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex
    (ATNR)
    • Stimulus: Head turned to one side
    • Response: Arm & leg on face side are extended, arm & leg on scalp side are flexed
    • Resolves: 6mo
    • Interferes with: feeding, visual tracking, midline use of hands, rolling, crawling
  19. Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex
    (STNR)
    • Stimulus: Cervical flexion or extension
    • Response: When in flexion, arms are flexed, legs are extended; when in extension, arms are extended, legs are flexed
    • Resolves: 6 to 8 mo
    • Interferes with: ability to prop on arms, crawling, quadruped position, holding & looking at objects
  20. Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex
    • Stimulus: Position
    • Response: Supine = body and extremities in extension; Prone = body and extremities are in flexion
    • Resolves: 6 mo
    • Interferes with: rolling, prop on elbows, supine to sit
  21. Galant Reflex
    • Stimulus: Touch skin along spine from shoulder to hip
    • Response: Lateral flexion of trunk to side of stimulus
    • Resolves: 2 mo
    • Interferes with: developement of sitting balance, may cause scoliosis
  22. Plantar Grasp Reflex
    • Stimulus: Pressure to base of toes
    • Response: Toe flexion
    • Resolves: 9 mo
    • Interferes with: Standing, balance, weight shift
  23. Moro Reflex
    • Stimulus: Head suddenly drops into extension
    • Response: Arms abduct with fingers open, then cross trunk; cry
    • Resolves: 5 mo
    • Interferes with: Balance reactions, protective responses, eye-hand coordination
  24. Startle Reflex
    • Stimulus: Loud, sudden noise
    • Response: Arms abduct with elbows flexed and fingers closed, cry
    • Resolves: 5 mo
    • Interferes with: Sitting balance, protective responses in sitting, eye-hand coordination
  25. Positive support Reflex
    • Stimulus: Weight placed on balls of feet when upright
    • Response: Stiffening of legs and trunk into extension
    • Resolves: 5 mo
    • Interferes with: Standing, walking, weight shift, plantar flexion contractures
  26. Stepping Reflex
    • Stimulus: Supported upright position with feet on firm surface
    • Response: Reciprocal flexion/extension of legs
    • Resolves: 2 mo
    • Interferes with: Standing, walking, weight shift, smooth reciprocal movements
  27. CVA Right Hemisphere
    • Decreased attention span
    • Decreased awareness and judgement
    • Impulsive behaviors
    • Memory deficits
    • Decreased abstract reasoning
  28. CVA Left Hemisphere
    • Increased frustration
    • Decreased processing
    • Possible aphasia
    • Possible dysphagia
    • Motor apraxia
  29. CVA Brainstem
    • Unstable vital signs
    • Decreased ability to swallow
    • Weakness & paralysis on both sides
  30. CVA Cerebellum
    • Decreased balance
    • Nausea
    • Ataxia & loss of coordination
    • Nystagmus
  31. Upper Extremity Flexor Synergy
    • Scapula: Elevation & retraction
    • Shoulder: Abduction and lateral rotation
    • Elbow: Flexion
    • Forearm: Supination
    • Wrist: Flexion
  32. Lower Extremity Synergy Pattern
    • Hip: Extension, medial rotation, adduction
    • Knee: Extension
    • Ankle: Plantar flexion, inversion
  33. Dorsal Scapular Nerve
    • From the rami of the brachial plexus
    • Innervates the rhomboids and levator scapulae
  34. Long Thoracic Nerve
    • From the rami of the brachial plexus
    • Innervates the serratus anterior
  35. Subclavian Nerve
    • From the trunks of the brachial plexus
    • Innervates the subclavius
  36. Suprascapular Nerve
    • From the trunks of the brachial plexus
    • Innervates the supraspinatus and infraspinatus
  37. Lateral Pectoral Nerve
    • From the lateral cord of the brachial plexus
    • Innervates the pectoralis major and minor
  38. Musculocutaneous Nerve
    • From the lateral cord of the brachial plexus
    • Innervates the coracobrachialis, brachialis, biceps brachii
  39. Median Nerve
    • From the medial and lateral cords of the brachial plexus
    • Innervates the forearm flexors (except flexor carpi ulnaris)
    • Innervates muscles of the hand, digits 1&2 (flexor digitorum, lumbricales, abductor pollicis brevis)
  40. Medial Pectoral
    • From the medial cord of the brachial plexus
    • Innervates the pectoralis major and minor
  41. Ulnar Nerve
    • From the medial cord of the brachial plexus
    • Innervates the forearm (flexor carpi ulnaris)
    • Most small muscles of the hand, digits 3&4 (flexor digitorum profundus 4&5, lumbricales, flexor digiti minimi)
  42. Upper Subscapular
    • From the posterior cord of the brachial plexus
    • Innervates the subscapularis
  43. Thoracodorsal Nerve
    • From the posterior cord of the brachial plexus
    • Innervates the latissimus dorsi
  44. Lower Subscapular
    • From the posterior cord of the brachial plexus
    • Innervates the subscapularis and teres major
  45. Axillary Nerve
    • From the posterior cord of the brachial plexus
    • Innervates the deltoid and teres minor
  46. Radial Nerve
    • From the posterior cord of the brachial plexus
    • Innervates the brachioradialis and the extensor muscles of the forearm
  47. Tibial Nerve
    • Plantaris
    • Gastrocnemius
    • Soleus
    • Posterior Tibialis
    • Flexor digitorum longus
    • Flexor hallucis longus

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