AP EURO Chapter 4 Test

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AP EURO Chapter 4 Test
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  1. What is the Age of Louis XIV?
    • The half century following the Peace of Westphalia
    • France played the most imposing role in the world
    • "Western" civilization developed
  2. What years was the Age of Louis XIV?
    1643-1715
  3. Who was the Grand Monarque?
    King Louis XIV
  4. Who is the Sun King? Why?
    • King Louis XIV
    • France was known as the land of the light by admirers
  5. Who was King Louis XIV?
    • Born in 1638
    • Inherited the throne of France in 1643
    • Ruled for himself in 1661
    • Ruled for 72 years until death in 1715
    • Lead France as the most powerful and influencial countries in the world
  6. Who was Charles II?
    • King of Spain in 1665
    • Weak and often ill due to the inbreeding of Hapsbrugs
    • Was not able to have children
    • Died in 1700
  7. What was significant about Charles II's lack of an heir?
    • Led to Wars of the Spanish Succession
    • Countries wanted to gain that power- King Louis XIV
  8. What is the Rhine?
    • A river in Europe, with valuable land around it
    • The "promised land"
    • Consisted of Spanish Netherlands (Belgium), Franche-Conte' (Free County of Burgundy)
  9. What is the France-Conte'?
    • Lies between ducal Burgundy and Switzerland
    • French speaking
    • Also known as the Free County of Burgundy
  10. What is universal monarchy?
    • The political situation in which one state might subordinate all others to its will
    • Almost achieved by Spanish Hapsburgs
  11. What is balance of power?
    • The technique used against universal monarchy
    • Condition of equilibrium or even balance, in which power is distributed among many seperate states, restoring equilibrium, or holding the balance
  12. What are the liberties of Europe?
    • The goal of balance-of--power politics
    • To preserve the sovereignty and independence of the states of Europe (states rights)
  13. Who is William III?
    • Born in 1650 after father's death
    • A Dutch enemy of King Louis XIV
    • The prince of Orange, later king of England and Scotland
    • Spoke four language, understood three more
    • Dutch Calvinist, married Mary Stuart in 1677
  14. What is the geography and historical significance of the "zone" of Western Europe?
    Paris and a 500 mile radius, not including the Spanish Netherlands
  15. When was universal monarchy first nearly achieved and how was it stopped?
    • Almost achieved by Austro-Spanish Hapsburgs
    • Stopped by France, the Protestant Reformation, 30 Years War, and the Peace of Westphalia
  16. What was the purpose for nations using balance of power policies?
    To prevent absolute monarch (Louis XIV)
  17. What made it possible to use balance of power?
    Lots of opposition, only a certain amount of people were allowed to fight for each side
  18. Why would nations rather team up with other smaller weak nations rather than larger stronger nations?
    Easier to control weaker nations and aren't a threat
  19. What general statements can be made about Louis XIV's rule in France and about the role of France in European affairs during his reign?
    • Absolute monarch
    • Potential universal monarch
  20. What were the goals of Louis XIV during his reign in France?
    • Absolute monarchy in France
    • Expand borders (Rhine, Spain...)
  21. What are the Estates General of the United Provinces?
    • The Dutch government as it was known in the diplomatic language of the day
    • Most bourgeois of all people
  22. Who are the Arminians?
    • A modified group of Dutch Calvinists that toned down the doctrine of absolute and unconditional predestination
    • Supported by burghers and doctrines from theologian of Leyden named Arminius
    • Minority
    • Tolerated in 1632
  23. What is the Bank of Amsterdam?
    • Founded in 1609 by the Dutch
    • Accepted the different types of money circulating in Europe and from other countries
    • Found equivalent value in florins, minted in the bank
  24. What is the House of Orange?
    • Led by the stadholder (governor-like) of Orange
    • Enjoyed exceptional prestige in the republic
    • Eventually the royal family (King of Dutch)
  25. What was the English Navigation Act of 1651?
    • Passed in 1651 by revolutionary government ruling England
    • Aimed at the Dutch carrying trade, saying imports must be brought in by English ships
    • Led to three wars
  26. What were the English-Dutch Wars?
    • Three wars that were as a result of the Navigation Act from 1652-1674
    • Gave Enlglish control of New Amsterdam, renamed New York
    • English won
  27. What was the Treaty of Nimwegen?
    Dutch's truce with France, signed in 1678 at the expense of Spain and Holy Roman Empire
  28. What is a hereditary stadholderate?
    • The office of stadholderate is passed down hereditarilly
    • Position given to the next in line in the House of Orange
  29. Who is Hugo Grotius?
    • The author of Law of War and Peace, a pioneering treatise on international law
    • Political philosopher
  30. Who is Baruch Spinoza?
    • Of a family of refugee Portuguese Jew
    • Political philosopher examining the nature of reality, human conduct, and church and state
    • Worked as a lense grinder
  31. Who is Christian Huyghens?
    • Lived from 1629 to 1695
    • Greatest Dutch scientist who worked with physics and mathematics
    • Improved telescope, made clocks move with pendulums, discovered rings of Saturn, launched wave theory of light
  32. What advantage of the early to mid 17th century enabled the Dutch to surpass many other European nations in intellectual, artistic, and commercial achievements?
    • 30 Years War- fighting didn't take place in Netherlands
    • Ship other countries' good with their fleet
  33. Who inherits the throne of England after Elizabeth I and what problems does he face?
    • James I (1603-1625)
    • Catholic and foreign
    • Faces problems with religion, parliament, and finances
  34. Who inherits the throne of England after James I?
    • James's son Charles I
    • Second Stuart king
    • Faces same problems as his father, only worse
  35. What document does the Parliament of England force Charles I to accept?
    The Petition of Right
  36. What were some of the conditions in the Petition of Right?
    • No imprisonment without just cause
    • No loans or taxes without Parliament's consent
    • No housing soldiers in private homes
    • No Martial Law in peacetime (related to first)
  37. What was the English document that formed the beginning ideas for the Bill of Rights?
    The Petition of Right
  38. How does Charles I react to the Petition of Right?
    • Dissolves Parliament for 11 years (1629-1640)
    • Raises money through fees, fines, foreign loans
  39. What does Parliament attempt to do when reinstated in 1461 during Charles I's reign?
    Limit his power
  40. What religion does Charles attempt to force Scotland Presbyterians into?
    • Anglican
    • Leads to a threat of war and reinstation of Parliament
  41. What does Charles I do when Parliament attempted to limit his power after reinstated in 1642?
    Used the military to arrest members of Parliament
  42. What were the two sides fighting in the English Civil War?
    Royalists/Cavaliers and Roundheads/Puritans
  43. Who did the Royalists support in the English Civil War?
    King Charles I
  44. Who did the Roundheads support in the English Civil War?
    Puritans/Parliament
  45. Who was the leader of the Royalists in the English Civil War?
    King Charles I
  46. Who was the leader of the Roundheads in the English Civil War?
    Oliver Cromwell
  47. Who was involved in the two sides of the English Civil War?
    • Royalists- Nobles and Anglican Church Leaders
    • Roundheads- Middle Class (merchants and townspeople)
  48. What were the different sides of the issues in the English Civil War?
    • Royalists- Divine Right (absolute monarchy)
    • Roundheads- Representative government, republic
  49. What happens when Parliament attempts to dissolve Cromwell's New Model Army?
    Army refused and remained loyal to Cromwell
  50. When was Charles I brought to trial?
    1649
  51. What was the result of Charles I's trial?
    He was publicly executed
  52. What was significant about Charles I's execution?
    Proved Machiavelle's absolutism
  53. What does Oliver Cromwell do when he gains power in 1653?
    Drafts a constitution for a republic with him as a ruler
  54. What were some of the actions Cromwell took during his rule in England?
    • "Reform" England society- make it Puritan
    • Subjugate Scotland and Ireland
  55. What was the Congress of Westphalia?
    • A group of representatives established by the Peace of Westphalia in order to make compromises after the 30 Years War
    • England not included
  56. What is the plantation of Ulster
    The movement to Northern Ireland by Anglicans
  57. What is the East India Company?
    • England's trading company to Asia, established in 1600
    • Allowed them to compete with the Dutch though it was not England's most profitable income
  58. What is the House of Lords?
    • One of two groups in Parliament that is made up of the gentry
    • Gentry formed the bulk of the aristocracy, mixed with representatives of the merchants and the towns
  59. What is the Solemn League and Covenant?
    • Developed by Parliament during the war against Charles I that prescribed that religion in England, Scotland, and Ireland should be made uniform "according to the word of God and the example of the best reformed churches"
    • Presbyterianism
  60. What was the Rump Parliament?
    • The Parliament created when Oliver Cromwell broke up Long Parliament and only left a rump of 50 or 60
    • Originally around 500
    • Due to a "rebellion" against Charles I led to death by treason
  61. What were the Levellers?
    • A political party, later called advanced political democrats, and led by John Lilburne
    • Wanted a nearly universal manhood suffrage, equality of representation, a written constitution, and subordination of Parliament to a reformed body of votes
  62. What was the Fifth Monarchy of Men?
    • A millennial group who felt that the end of the world was at hand
    • Believed Jesus would be the "fifth monarch" after the first four empires
  63. What was the Instrument of Government?
    A constitution for England, developed by Cromwell
  64. What was the plantation of Ulster?
    The movement to northern Ireland by Anglicans
  65. What was the True Law of Free Monarchy?
    • A book written by James I of England
    • Described royal absolutism in which a monarchy was free from control by Parliament, chrurchmen, or laws and customs of the past
    • Included divine right
  66. What is the Divine Right of Kings?
    A declaration by James I that kings drew their authority from God and were responsible to God alone
  67. Who were Puritans?
    Religious people whose Calvinist beliefs made them dissatisfied with the organization and doctrine of the Church of England
  68. What was the Long Parliament?
    • Parliament created under Charles I that was originally disolved, but the same members were elected
    • Remained the same for 20 years
    • 1640-1660
  69. Who were the Roundheads?
    • A group of Parliamentary forces that gradually defeated the royalists
    • Named from close haircuts (favored by Puritans)
  70. Who were the Ironsides?
    A military force organized by Cromwell, in which extreme Protestant exaltation provided the basis for morale, discipline, and the will to fight
  71. What is the Commonwealth?
    The name of England under Cromwell's rule as a republic
  72. Who were the Quakers?
    • A religion also known as the Society of Friends, created by George Fox
    • Caused much consternation by insisting that all believers could have new revalations if spiritual truth, by rejecting various social and religious hierarchies, and by allowing women to preach at meetings
  73. Who was the Lord Protector?
    Title that Cromwell gave to himself when he ruled England without Parliament and used representative bodies devised by himself (acts as King)
  74. What was moral puritanism?
    Strict in terms of morals
  75. What was different about the English civil war in terms of religion?
    • Fought between two types of Protestants, Puritans and Anglicans
    • Representative government versus the king
  76. What was the population of the English colonies in America at the beginning of the 18th century?
    500,000
  77. What country did England compete with in trade?
    Netherlands
  78. What was unique about England's successful government with an unpowerful monarch?
    No other countries had large democratic and were fighting absolute monarchy
  79. Why did Scotland originally support Parliament?
    They wanted to rebel against Charles' supporters but not Charles
  80. Why did Scotland switch to support the royalist camp?
    Charles was executed, still supported them
  81. Why did the English deny that they had a civil war?
    • It ruined their reputation
    • Blamed it on the Puritans
  82. When was Oliver Cromwell born?
    1599
  83. How many children did Oliver Cromwell have?
    8
  84. What year did Cromwell become a member of the House of Commons?
    1629
  85. Who was the king during Cromwell's time?
    Charles I
  86. What were members of Parliament concerned with in Cromwell's time?
    The spiritual and mortal world
  87. Who were the major Protestant leaders in the early 16th century (disciples of the Puritans of England)?
    Martin Luther and John Calvin
  88. What were three nations or Europe that were officially Protestant by 1630?
    Scotland, England, and Scandanavia
  89. What ideas led to the development of the Protestant Work Ethic?
    Pre-destination and Divine Providence
  90. When was the English Civil War?
    1642 to 1649
  91. What did Royalists believe in?
    The Divine Right of Kings
  92. What did Parliamentarians believe?
    The royal power should be tempered by the will of the people
  93. What would Cromwell (a Calvinist) be considered in England?
    An independent
  94. When did Cromwell become second in command of Parliament?
    • 1645
    • Under Lord Farfax
  95. What people were removed from command of the military by the Self Denying Ordinance?
    Politicians (not including Cromwell)
  96. What was the name of the army of Parliament, commanded by Cromwell?
    The New Model Army
  97. When did Charles fall into the hands of Parliament?
    January 1647
  98. Who did Charles convince to fight for him in 1648 and in exchange for what?
    • King Louis XIV
    • The official religion of England became Catholic
  99. When was Charles I executed?
    1649
  100. Where did Cromwell attack royalists in 1649?
    Ireland
  101. After attacking Ireland, where did Cromwell attack royalists?
    Scotland
  102. What Parliament was dissolved in 1653 by Cromwell?
    Rump Parliament
  103. What was the name of the Parliament that wanted Cromwell to be king and not rule alone?
    The Barebone Parliament
  104. Why did Cromwell form a new Parliament in 1656?
    To pay for the war with Spain
  105. What was the name Cromwell have himself while he was ruling England (pratically as king)?
    The Protector
  106. When did Oliver Cromwell die?
    1658
  107. Who took over for Cromwell after his death?
    His son Richard
  108. What king was restored to monarchy during Richard's rule in England?
    • Charles II
    • Stuart
  109. When does Cromwell rule England?
    1653 to 1658
  110. Why does Richard not remain the Protector of England?
    He does not have the same respect as his dad
  111. When does Charles II of England rule?
    1660 to 1685
  112. What was the time period in which Charles II returned to throne known as?
    Restoration
  113. What was Charles II of England characterized as?
    The Merry Monarch
  114. What were some of the changes in drama during the 17th century?
    • Comedy style
    • Women, poke fun at moods of the time
  115. What is Charles II of England want for religion?
    A compromise to gain toleration for Catholics
  116. What act does Parliament grant during Charles II's rule for religion?
    Supremacy of Anglican Church
  117. What does the Habeas Corpus state?
    States have the right to be brought before a judge to determine if a trial in necessary
  118. What were the long term effects of Habeas Corpus?
    Beginning of the guarentee of personal civil rights
  119. What are problems that France causes in England during Charles II's rule?
    Lack of money, lack of an heir, and religion
  120. What were the two political parties that formed based on opinions of the line of English succession after Charles II?
    • Whigs- supported alternative to James
    • Tories- supported James' succession to the throne (still don't like him)
  121. What were the effects of the split into political parties (Whigs and Tories) in England?
    Two party political system in England and the United States
  122. When does Charles II die?
    1685
  123. Who succeeds Charles II of England?
    James II
  124. How did James II anger Parliament when he became king?
    Attempted to rule without them as an absolute monarch
  125. What were the three things that scared Protestants in England about James II?
    • Appointment of Catholics to positions of power
    • The creation of a standing army
    • He has a son (continue a line of Catholics)
  126. How does Parliament plan to prevent James II and his son from keeping England Catholic?
    • Plan to overthrow him
    • Use William of Orange (William III), his wife Mary, and John Churchill
  127. What event took place in 1688 to overthrow James II?
    The Bloodless or Glorious Revolution
  128. How was James II overthrown?
    • William led army to London to attack, joined by John Churchill
    • James II fled to France
    • William and Mary take throne
  129. When was the English Bill of Rights passed?
    1689
  130. What was included in the English Bill of Rights?
    • Ruler could not...
    • Suspend Parliament's laws
    • Levy taxes without Parliament
    • Interface with freedom of speech in Parliament
    • Penalize a citizen who petitions the king about grievances
    • Organize a standig army in peacetime
    • Post excessive bail in royal court
  131. Who was Charles II?
    • The first king after the monarchy was restored in 1660
    • The son of Charles I
    • Careful not to provoke Parliament like his father
  132. What is a squirearchy?
    The regime of the landlord-justices, who directed affairs in government, like Parliament, and served as justices of small lawsuits
  133. Who are Dissenters?
    • Protestants that refused to accept the restored Chuch of England
    • Led them to be excluded from town governing bodies, clergymen to teach school or come within five miles of an incorporated town, and prevent conventicles not approved by the Church of England
  134. What are conventicles?
    Religious meeting of Dissenters
  135. Who was Queen Christina?
    • The daughter of Gustavus Adolphus (from Sweden)
    • Abdicted her throne and was recieved into the Roman Catholic Church
  136. What is the Treaty of Dover?
    • A secret treaty between Charles II and Louis XIV
    • 1670
    • Charles agreed to join Louis XIV in his expected war against Dutch
    • Louis XIV agreed to pay the king of England three million livres a year during the war
  137. Who was the Duke of York?
    Charles II's brother and heir, James II, who converted to Catholocism
  138. What was the Test Act?
    • An act passed by Parliament that required all office holders to take comminion in the Church of England
    • Renewed the legislation against Dissenters and made it impossible for Catholics to serve in the government, army, or navy
    • In response to the Declaration of Indulgence
    • 1673 to 1828
  139. Who were the Whigs?
    • Members of Parliament that were most suspicious of the king, Catholics, and the French
    • Wanted to exclude James by law from the throne
    • Made of middle class and merchents of London
  140. Who were the Tories?
    • The King's supporters
    • Party of less aristocracy and gentry, those who were suspicious of the "moneyed interest of London", and felt a strong loyalty to the church and king
  141. Who was James II?
    • Became king of England in 1685
    • Antagonized everyone, including Tories
    • Ignored the Test Act, partially showed religious toleration
  142. Who were William and Mary?
    • Mary was James' daughter and a Protestant, was offered and recieved the throne of England (ran James out)
    • Married to William of Orange (William III), the king of the Dutch who aimed to protect them from the French
  143. What was the Boyne River?
    • A river in Ireland where in 1690, William III's army deafeated James II's army
    • As a result, Protestanstism remained the official religion and James II fled to France
  144. What was the Act of Settlement?
    • Passed in 1701
    • Stating that no Catholic could be the king of England, excluding the descendants of James II who were known as the Pretenders
  145. What was the Toleration Act?
    • Passed in 1689
    • Allowed Protestant Dissenters to practice their religion
    • Still excluded them from political life and public service
  146. What was the declaration of indulgence?
    Statement given by Charles II that announced the nonenforcement of laws against Dissenters and that he supported religious toleration
  147. What was the United Kingdom of Great Britain?
    • Union created to join Scotland and England in 1707
    • Governent and Parliament combined while Scotland retained its legal system and established Presbyterian church
  148. Why was Charles II reluctant to provoke Parliament?
    His father was beheaded because of it
  149. What class of people ran the government of England after the Restoration?
    • Nobles, aristocracy
    • Represented in Parliament
  150. Who would Parliament prefer in a religious conflict during Charles II's reign?
    Protestants
  151. Where the Whigs and Tories liberal or conservative?
    • Whigs- liberal
    • Tories- conservative
  152. What was the relationship between the king and people after the Glorious Revolution?
    Contractual
  153. What is the Fronde?
    • A noble led French Rebellion that took place after the Peace of Westphalia
    • Against Cardinal Mazarin
    • To take advantage of the young king and gain judicial power
    • Supported by Parliament until the nobles turned to Spain
    • Bourgeoisie and peasantry in France turn to strong monarchy to defend themselves from noblity
  154. Who was Cardinal Mazarin?
    • Governed in the name of Louis XIV when he was a child
    • Others attempted to overthrow
    • Died in 1661
  155. What is L'etat, c'est moi?
    French for the "state is myself," said by Louis XIV in reference to his belief that he was a sovereign ruler
  156. Who was Bishop Bossuet?
    • The principle theorist of absolutism, preaching that all power came from God and that kings were representatives in the political affairs of earth
    • Divine Right
  157. What was Versailles?
    • A new city (built from a town ten miles from Paris)
    • As a "monument" to worldly splendor
    • Was large and fancy, used as government away from Paris
    • Eventually international meeting place
  158. What is lever, diner, coucher?
    • The king's daily routine of rising, eating, and going to bed
    • Ceremonial
  159. Who is J.B. Colbert?
    • King Louis' minister of 20 years, who worked to make France economically powerful, a self-sufficing economic unit, expand the export of French goods, and increase the wealth for government income
    • Mostly done by utlilizing merchantalism- creating colonies in America
  160. What were the Five Great Farms?
    • A tariff union that reduced internal tariffs in a large part of France, turning it into one of the largest free-trade areas in Europe
    • Developed by Colbert
  161. What is the Commercial Code?
    • Replaced much of the local customary law, and long a model of business practice and regulation
    • Created by Colbert, improved communication, worked through guild
  162. What was the Old Regime?
    • The two centuries of Bourbon rule, which was a society in which groups of many kinds could identify their own special interests with those of the "absolute monarchy"
    • Nickname of the Bourbons
  163. Who were the five Bourbons who ruled in France?
    Henry IV, Louis XIII, Louis XIV, Louis XV, Louis XVI
  164. What was the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes?
    • Revoked by King Louis XIV in order to create religious unity
    • Lead to the persecution of Protestants in France as it became less tolerant
  165. What was the "Old Bargain?"
    • French king could raise taxes if the nobility was exempt
    • In exchange, the nobility would support absolute monarchy
  166. What were the different wars within the Wars of Louis XIV?
    War of Devolution, Dutch War, The War of the Spanish Succession, The War of the League if Augsburg
  167. What was the War of Devolution?
    • 1667
    • French attempt to gain the Spanish Netherlands
    • Blocked by "Triple Alliance" of Dutch, English, and Swedish
    • Early example of "balance of power"
  168. What was the Dutch War?
    • 1672
    • French attack to Dutch provinces on the lower Rhine
    • William II allied with Australian and Spanish Hapsburgs, Brandenburg (Prussia), and Denmark
    • Results in the Treaty of Niwegen
    • France gives up its Dutch ambitions in exchange for Franch-Comte from Spain
  169. What was the War of the League of Augsburg?
    • 1688-1697
    • French invasion of the territories of Alsace and Lorraine causing a conflict between France and HRE
    • Emperor Leopold I gathered Catholic powers into an alliance against the French and Protestant forces allied behind William II (of Orange)
    • Catholic and Protestant enemies of Louis XIV formed Leauge of Augsburg
    • Results in the Peace of Ryswich
  170. What were the countries on either side of the War of the League of Augsburg?
    • Holy Roman Empire, Spain, Sweden, Netherlands, partially England
    • vs.
    • France
  171. What was the War of the Spanish Succession?
    • Charles II last of the Spanish Hapsburg line in Spain
    • Competition to determine who would get the Spanish Inheritance
    • Agreements made to split until the will was found
    • Results in the Peace of Ultrecht
  172. What was written in the will of Charles II of Spain?
    • Spanish Empire should be left intact
    • Inheritance should go to the grandson of Louis XIV
    • If refused, it would go to the son of the Holy Roman Emperor
    • Louis XIV accepted
  173. What were the two sides of the War of the Spanish Succession?
    • Grand Alliance (William III)
    • England, Netherlands, Holy Roman Empire, Brandenburg, Portugal, and Savoy
    • vs.
    • France, Spain, Bavaria
  174. What was the Treaty of Ultrecht?
    • Assured the British line of Protestant kings and maintenance of parliamentary and constituational government (Glorius Revolution)
    • Established France and Great Britain as the two most vagorous powers of Europe
    • States of Sardinia and Prussia ascended over the European horizon

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