The half century following the Peace of Westphalia
France played the most imposing role in the world
"Western" civilization developed
What years was the Age of Louis XIV?
Who was the Grand Monarque?
King Louis XIV
Who is the Sun King? Why?
King Louis XIV
France was known as the land of the light by admirers
Who was King Louis XIV?
Born in 1638
Inherited the throne of France in 1643
Ruled for himself in 1661
Ruled for 72 years until death in 1715
Lead France as the most powerful and influencial countries in the world
Who was Charles II?
King of Spain in 1665
Weak and often ill due to the inbreeding of Hapsbrugs
Was not able to have children
Died in 1700
What was significant about Charles II's lack of an heir?
Led to Wars of the Spanish Succession
Countries wanted to gain that power- King Louis XIV
What is the Rhine?
A river in Europe, with valuable land around it
The "promised land"
Consisted of Spanish Netherlands (Belgium), Franche-Conte' (Free County of Burgundy)
What is the France-Conte'?
Lies between ducal Burgundy and Switzerland
Also known as the Free County of Burgundy
What is universal monarchy?
The political situation in which one state might subordinate all others to its will
Almost achieved by Spanish Hapsburgs
What is balance of power?
The technique used against universal monarchy
Condition of equilibrium or even balance, in which power is distributed among many seperate states, restoring equilibrium, or holding the balance
What are the liberties of Europe?
The goal of balance-of--power politics
To preserve the sovereignty and independence of the states of Europe (states rights)
Who is William III?
Born in 1650 after father's death
A Dutch enemy of King Louis XIV
The prince of Orange, later king of England and Scotland
Spoke four language, understood three more
Dutch Calvinist, married Mary Stuart in 1677
What is the geography and historical significance of the "zone" of Western Europe?
Paris and a 500 mile radius, not including the Spanish Netherlands
When was universal monarchy first nearly achieved and how was it stopped?
Almost achieved by Austro-Spanish Hapsburgs
Stopped by France, the Protestant Reformation, 30 Years War, and the Peace of Westphalia
What was the purpose for nations using balance of power policies?
To prevent absolute monarch (Louis XIV)
What made it possible to use balance of power?
Lots of opposition, only a certain amount of people were allowed to fight for each side
Why would nations rather team up with other smaller weak nations rather than larger stronger nations?
Easier to control weaker nations and aren't a threat
What general statements can be made about Louis XIV's rule in France and about the role of France in European affairs during his reign?
Potential universal monarch
What were the goals of Louis XIV during his reign in France?
Absolute monarchy in France
Expand borders (Rhine, Spain...)
What are the Estates General of the United Provinces?
The Dutch government as it was known in the diplomatic language of the day
Most bourgeois of all people
Who are the Arminians?
A modified group of Dutch Calvinists that toned down the doctrine of absolute and unconditional predestination
Supported by burghers and doctrines from theologian of Leyden named Arminius
Tolerated in 1632
What is the Bank of Amsterdam?
Founded in 1609 by the Dutch
Accepted the different types of money circulating in Europe and from other countries
Found equivalent value in florins, minted in the bank
What is the House of Orange?
Led by the stadholder (governor-like) of Orange
Enjoyed exceptional prestige in the republic
Eventually the royal family (King of Dutch)
What was the English Navigation Act of 1651?
Passed in 1651 by revolutionary government ruling England
Aimed at the Dutch carrying trade, saying imports must be brought in by English ships
Led to three wars
What were the English-Dutch Wars?
Three wars that were as a result of the Navigation Act from 1652-1674
Gave Enlglish control of New Amsterdam, renamed New York
What was the Treaty of Nimwegen?
Dutch's truce with France, signed in 1678 at the expense of Spain and Holy Roman Empire
What is a hereditary stadholderate?
The office of stadholderate is passed down hereditarilly
Position given to the next in line in the House of Orange
Who is Hugo Grotius?
The author of Law of War and Peace, a pioneering treatise on international law
Who is Baruch Spinoza?
Of a family of refugee Portuguese Jew
Political philosopher examining the nature of reality, human conduct, and church and state
Worked as a lense grinder
Who is Christian Huyghens?
Lived from 1629 to 1695
Greatest Dutch scientist who worked with physics and mathematics
Improved telescope, made clocks move with pendulums, discovered rings of Saturn, launched wave theory of light
What advantage of the early to mid 17th century enabled the Dutch to surpass many other European nations in intellectual, artistic, and commercial achievements?
30 Years War- fighting didn't take place in Netherlands
Ship other countries' good with their fleet
Who inherits the throne of England after Elizabeth I and what problems does he face?
James I (1603-1625)
Catholic and foreign
Faces problems with religion, parliament, and finances
Who inherits the throne of England after James I?
James's son Charles I
Second Stuart king
Faces same problems as his father, only worse
What document does the Parliament of England force Charles I to accept?
The Petition of Right
What were some of the conditions in the Petition of Right?
No imprisonment without just cause
No loans or taxes without Parliament's consent
No housing soldiers in private homes
No Martial Law in peacetime (related to first)
What was the English document that formed the beginning ideas for the Bill of Rights?
The Petition of Right
How does Charles I react to the Petition of Right?
Dissolves Parliament for 11 years (1629-1640)
Raises money through fees, fines, foreign loans
What does Parliament attempt to do when reinstated in 1461 during Charles I's reign?
Limit his power
What religion does Charles attempt to force Scotland Presbyterians into?
Leads to a threat of war and reinstation of Parliament
What does Charles I do when Parliament attempted to limit his power after reinstated in 1642?
Used the military to arrest members of Parliament
What were the two sides fighting in the English Civil War?
Royalists/Cavaliers and Roundheads/Puritans
Who did the Royalists support in the English Civil War?
King Charles I
Who did the Roundheads support in the English Civil War?
Who was the leader of the Royalists in the English Civil War?
King Charles I
Who was the leader of the Roundheads in the English Civil War?
Who was involved in the two sides of the English Civil War?
Royalists- Nobles and Anglican Church Leaders
Roundheads- Middle Class (merchants and townspeople)
What were the different sides of the issues in the English Civil War?
Royalists- Divine Right (absolute monarchy)
Roundheads- Representative government, republic
What happens when Parliament attempts to dissolve Cromwell's New Model Army?
Army refused and remained loyal to Cromwell
When was Charles I brought to trial?
What was the result of Charles I's trial?
He was publicly executed
What was significant about Charles I's execution?
Proved Machiavelle's absolutism
What does Oliver Cromwell do when he gains power in 1653?
Drafts a constitution for a republic with him as a ruler
What were some of the actions Cromwell took during his rule in England?
"Reform" England society- make it Puritan
Subjugate Scotland and Ireland
What was the Congress of Westphalia?
A group of representatives established by the Peace of Westphalia in order to make compromises after the 30 Years War
England not included
What is the plantation of Ulster
The movement to Northern Ireland by Anglicans
What is the East India Company?
England's trading company to Asia, established in 1600
Allowed them to compete with the Dutch though it was not England's most profitable income
What is the House of Lords?
One of two groups in Parliament that is made up of the gentry
Gentry formed the bulk of the aristocracy, mixed with representatives of the merchants and the towns
What is the Solemn League and Covenant?
Developed by Parliament during the war against Charles I that prescribed that religion in England, Scotland, and Ireland should be made uniform "according to the word of God and the example of the best reformed churches"
What was the Rump Parliament?
The Parliament created when Oliver Cromwell broke up Long Parliament and only left a rump of 50 or 60
Originally around 500
Due to a "rebellion" against Charles I led to death by treason
What were the Levellers?
A political party, later called advanced political democrats, and led by John Lilburne
Wanted a nearly universal manhood suffrage, equality of representation, a written constitution, and subordination of Parliament to a reformed body of votes
What was the Fifth Monarchy of Men?
A millennial group who felt that the end of the world was at hand
Believed Jesus would be the "fifth monarch" after the first four empires
What was the Instrument of Government?
A constitution for England, developed by Cromwell
What was the plantation of Ulster?
The movement to northern Ireland by Anglicans
What was the True Law of Free Monarchy?
A book written by James I of England
Described royal absolutism in which a monarchy was free from control by Parliament, chrurchmen, or laws and customs of the past
Included divine right
What is the Divine Right of Kings?
A declaration by James I that kings drew their authority from God and were responsible to God alone
Who were Puritans?
Religious people whose Calvinist beliefs made them dissatisfied with the organization and doctrine of the Church of England
What was the Long Parliament?
Parliament created under Charles I that was originally disolved, but the same members were elected
Remained the same for 20 years
Who were the Roundheads?
A group of Parliamentary forces that gradually defeated the royalists
Named from close haircuts (favored by Puritans)
Who were the Ironsides?
A military force organized by Cromwell, in which extreme Protestant exaltation provided the basis for morale, discipline, and the will to fight
What is the Commonwealth?
The name of England under Cromwell's rule as a republic
Who were the Quakers?
A religion also known as the Society of Friends, created by George Fox
Caused much consternation by insisting that all believers could have new revalations if spiritual truth, by rejecting various social and religious hierarchies, and by allowing women to preach at meetings
Who was the Lord Protector?
Title that Cromwell gave to himself when he ruled England without Parliament and used representative bodies devised by himself (acts as King)
What was moral puritanism?
Strict in terms of morals
What was different about the English civil war in terms of religion?
Fought between two types of Protestants, Puritans and Anglicans
Representative government versus the king
What was the population of the English colonies in America at the beginning of the 18th century?
What country did England compete with in trade?
What was unique about England's successful government with an unpowerful monarch?
No other countries had large democratic and were fighting absolute monarchy
Why did Scotland originally support Parliament?
They wanted to rebel against Charles' supporters but not Charles
Why did Scotland switch to support the royalist camp?
Charles was executed, still supported them
Why did the English deny that they had a civil war?
It ruined their reputation
Blamed it on the Puritans
When was Oliver Cromwell born?
How many children did Oliver Cromwell have?
What year did Cromwell become a member of the House of Commons?
Who was the king during Cromwell's time?
What were members of Parliament concerned with in Cromwell's time?
The spiritual and mortal world
Who were the major Protestant leaders in the early 16th century (disciples of the Puritans of England)?
Martin Luther and John Calvin
What were three nations or Europe that were officially Protestant by 1630?
Scotland, England, and Scandanavia
What ideas led to the development of the Protestant Work Ethic?
Pre-destination and Divine Providence
When was the English Civil War?
1642 to 1649
What did Royalists believe in?
The Divine Right of Kings
What did Parliamentarians believe?
The royal power should be tempered by the will of the people
What would Cromwell (a Calvinist) be considered in England?
When did Cromwell become second in command of Parliament?
Under Lord Farfax
What people were removed from command of the military by the Self Denying Ordinance?
Politicians (not including Cromwell)
What was the name of the army of Parliament, commanded by Cromwell?
The New Model Army
When did Charles fall into the hands of Parliament?
Who did Charles convince to fight for him in 1648 and in exchange for what?
King Louis XIV
The official religion of England became Catholic
When was Charles I executed?
Where did Cromwell attack royalists in 1649?
After attacking Ireland, where did Cromwell attack royalists?
What Parliament was dissolved in 1653 by Cromwell?
What was the name of the Parliament that wanted Cromwell to be king and not rule alone?
The Barebone Parliament
Why did Cromwell form a new Parliament in 1656?
To pay for the war with Spain
What was the name Cromwell have himself while he was ruling England (pratically as king)?
When did Oliver Cromwell die?
Who took over for Cromwell after his death?
His son Richard
What king was restored to monarchy during Richard's rule in England?
When does Cromwell rule England?
1653 to 1658
Why does Richard not remain the Protector of England?
He does not have the same respect as his dad
When does Charles II of England rule?
1660 to 1685
What was the time period in which Charles II returned to throne known as?
What was Charles II of England characterized as?
The Merry Monarch
What were some of the changes in drama during the 17th century?
Women, poke fun at moods of the time
What is Charles II of England want for religion?
A compromise to gain toleration for Catholics
What act does Parliament grant during Charles II's rule for religion?
Supremacy of Anglican Church
What does the Habeas Corpus state?
States have the right to be brought before a judge to determine if a trial in necessary
What were the long term effects of Habeas Corpus?
Beginning of the guarentee of personal civil rights
What are problems that France causes in England during Charles II's rule?
Lack of money, lack of an heir, and religion
What were the two political parties that formed based on opinions of the line of English succession after Charles II?
Whigs- supported alternative to James
Tories- supported James' succession to the throne (still don't like him)
What were the effects of the split into political parties (Whigs and Tories) in England?
Two party political system in England and the United States
When does Charles II die?
Who succeeds Charles II of England?
How did James II anger Parliament when he became king?
Attempted to rule without them as an absolute monarch
What were the three things that scared Protestants in England about James II?
Appointment of Catholics to positions of power
The creation of a standing army
He has a son (continue a line of Catholics)
How does Parliament plan to prevent James II and his son from keeping England Catholic?
Plan to overthrow him
Use William of Orange (William III), his wife Mary, and John Churchill
What event took place in 1688 to overthrow James II?
The Bloodless or Glorious Revolution
How was James II overthrown?
William led army to London to attack, joined by John Churchill
James II fled to France
William and Mary take throne
When was the English Bill of Rights passed?
What was included in the English Bill of Rights?
Ruler could not...
Suspend Parliament's laws
Levy taxes without Parliament
Interface with freedom of speech in Parliament
Penalize a citizen who petitions the king about grievances
Organize a standig army in peacetime
Post excessive bail in royal court
Who was Charles II?
The first king after the monarchy was restored in 1660
The son of Charles I
Careful not to provoke Parliament like his father
What is a squirearchy?
The regime of the landlord-justices, who directed affairs in government, like Parliament, and served as justices of small lawsuits
Who are Dissenters?
Protestants that refused to accept the restored Chuch of England
Led them to be excluded from town governing bodies, clergymen to teach school or come within five miles of an incorporated town, and prevent conventicles not approved by the Church of England
What are conventicles?
Religious meeting of Dissenters
Who was Queen Christina?
The daughter of Gustavus Adolphus (from Sweden)
Abdicted her throne and was recieved into the Roman Catholic Church
What is the Treaty of Dover?
A secret treaty between Charles II and Louis XIV
Charles agreed to join Louis XIV in his expected war against Dutch
Louis XIV agreed to pay the king of England three million livres a year during the war
Who was the Duke of York?
Charles II's brother and heir, James II, who converted to Catholocism
What was the Test Act?
An act passed by Parliament that required all office holders to take comminion in the Church of England
Renewed the legislation against Dissenters and made it impossible for Catholics to serve in the government, army, or navy
In response to the Declaration of Indulgence
1673 to 1828
Who were the Whigs?
Members of Parliament that were most suspicious of the king, Catholics, and the French
Wanted to exclude James by law from the throne
Made of middle class and merchents of London
Who were the Tories?
The King's supporters
Party of less aristocracy and gentry, those who were suspicious of the "moneyed interest of London", and felt a strong loyalty to the church and king
Who was James II?
Became king of England in 1685
Antagonized everyone, including Tories
Ignored the Test Act, partially showed religious toleration
Who were William and Mary?
Mary was James' daughter and a Protestant, was offered and recieved the throne of England (ran James out)
Married to William of Orange (William III), the king of the Dutch who aimed to protect them from the French
What was the Boyne River?
A river in Ireland where in 1690, William III's army deafeated James II's army
As a result, Protestanstism remained the official religion and James II fled to France
What was the Act of Settlement?
Passed in 1701
Stating that no Catholic could be the king of England, excluding the descendants of James II who were known as the Pretenders
What was the Toleration Act?
Passed in 1689
Allowed Protestant Dissenters to practice their religion
Still excluded them from political life and public service
What was the declaration of indulgence?
Statement given by Charles II that announced the nonenforcement of laws against Dissenters and that he supported religious toleration
What was the United Kingdom of Great Britain?
Union created to join Scotland and England in 1707
Governent and Parliament combined while Scotland retained its legal system and established Presbyterian church
Why was Charles II reluctant to provoke Parliament?
His father was beheaded because of it
What class of people ran the government of England after the Restoration?
Represented in Parliament
Who would Parliament prefer in a religious conflict during Charles II's reign?
Where the Whigs and Tories liberal or conservative?
What was the relationship between the king and people after the Glorious Revolution?
What is the Fronde?
A noble led French Rebellion that took place after the Peace of Westphalia
Against Cardinal Mazarin
To take advantage of the young king and gain judicial power
Supported by Parliament until the nobles turned to Spain
Bourgeoisie and peasantry in France turn to strong monarchy to defend themselves from noblity
Who was Cardinal Mazarin?
Governed in the name of Louis XIV when he was a child
Others attempted to overthrow
Died in 1661
What is L'etat, c'est moi?
French for the "state is myself," said by Louis XIV in reference to his belief that he was a sovereign ruler
Who was Bishop Bossuet?
The principle theorist of absolutism, preaching that all power came from God and that kings were representatives in the political affairs of earth
What was Versailles?
A new city (built from a town ten miles from Paris)
As a "monument" to worldly splendor
Was large and fancy, used as government away from Paris
Eventually international meeting place
What is lever, diner, coucher?
The king's daily routine of rising, eating, and going to bed
Who is J.B. Colbert?
King Louis' minister of 20 years, who worked to make France economically powerful, a self-sufficing economic unit, expand the export of French goods, and increase the wealth for government income
Mostly done by utlilizing merchantalism- creating colonies in America
What were the Five Great Farms?
A tariff union that reduced internal tariffs in a large part of France, turning it into one of the largest free-trade areas in Europe
Developed by Colbert
What is the Commercial Code?
Replaced much of the local customary law, and long a model of business practice and regulation
Created by Colbert, improved communication, worked through guild
What was the Old Regime?
The two centuries of Bourbon rule, which was a society in which groups of many kinds could identify their own special interests with those of the "absolute monarchy"
Nickname of the Bourbons
Who were the five Bourbons who ruled in France?
Henry IV, Louis XIII, Louis XIV, Louis XV, Louis XVI
What was the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes?
Revoked by King Louis XIV in order to create religious unity
Lead to the persecution of Protestants in France as it became less tolerant
What was the "Old Bargain?"
French king could raise taxes if the nobility was exempt
In exchange, the nobility would support absolute monarchy
What were the different wars within the Wars of Louis XIV?
War of Devolution, Dutch War, The War of the Spanish Succession, The War of the League if Augsburg
What was the War of Devolution?
French attempt to gain the Spanish Netherlands
Blocked by "Triple Alliance" of Dutch, English, and Swedish
Early example of "balance of power"
What was the Dutch War?
French attack to Dutch provinces on the lower Rhine
William II allied with Australian and Spanish Hapsburgs, Brandenburg (Prussia), and Denmark
Results in the Treaty of Niwegen
France gives up its Dutch ambitions in exchange for Franch-Comte from Spain
What was the War of the League of Augsburg?
French invasion of the territories of Alsace and Lorraine causing a conflict between France and HRE
Emperor Leopold I gathered Catholic powers into an alliance against the French and Protestant forces allied behind William II (of Orange)
Catholic and Protestant enemies of Louis XIV formed Leauge of Augsburg
Results in the Peace of Ryswich
What were the countries on either side of the War of the League of Augsburg?
Holy Roman Empire, Spain, Sweden, Netherlands, partially England
What was the War of the Spanish Succession?
Charles II last of the Spanish Hapsburg line in Spain
Competition to determine who would get the Spanish Inheritance
Agreements made to split until the will was found
Results in the Peace of Ultrecht
What was written in the will of Charles II of Spain?
Spanish Empire should be left intact
Inheritance should go to the grandson of Louis XIV
If refused, it would go to the son of the Holy Roman Emperor
Louis XIV accepted
What were the two sides of the War of the Spanish Succession?
Grand Alliance (William III)
England, Netherlands, Holy Roman Empire, Brandenburg, Portugal, and Savoy
France, Spain, Bavaria
What was the Treaty of Ultrecht?
Assured the British line of Protestant kings and maintenance of parliamentary and constituational government (Glorius Revolution)
Established France and Great Britain as the two most vagorous powers of Europe
States of Sardinia and Prussia ascended over the European horizon