Chapter 17

Card Set Information

Author:
lysabaclig
ID:
42036
Filename:
Chapter 17
Updated:
2010-10-13 21:05:41
Tags:
Biology AP
Folders:

Description:
Molecular Cell Biology
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user lysabaclig on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Transcription
    The synthesis of RNA under the direction of DNA
  2. mRNA
    • It carries a genetic message from the DNA to the
    • protein-synthesizing machinery of the cell
  3. Translation
    • The actual synthesis of a polypeptide, which
    • occurs under the direction of mRNA
  4. RNA Processing
    Modification of RNA before it leaves the nucleus
  5. Primary Transcript
    The initial RNA transcript from any gene
  6. Triplet Code
    • The genetic instructions for a polypeptide chain
    • are written in the DNA as a series of nonoverlapping, three-nucleotide words
  7. Template Strand
    • It provides the template for ordering the
    • sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcript
  8. Codons
    The mRNA base triplets
  9. Reading Frame
    • The way a cell’s mRNA-translating machinery
    • groups the mRNA nucleotides into codons
  10. Promoter
    • The DNA sequence where RNA polymerase attaches
    • and initiates transcription
  11. Terminator
    • The sequence that signals the end of
    • transcription
  12. Transcription Unit
    • The stretch of DNA that is transcribed into an
    • RNA molecule
  13. Transcription factors
    • A collection of proteins that mediate the
    • binding of RNA polymerase and the initiation of transcription
  14. Transcription Initiation Complex
    • The completed assembly of transcription factors
    • and RNA polymerase II bound to the promoter
  15. TATA Box
    A crucial promoter DNA sequence
  16. Poly-A Tail
    • A promoter DNA sequence crucial in forming the
    • transcription initiation complex
  17. RNA Splicing
    • The removal of a large portion of the RNA molecule
    • that is initially synthesized
  18. Introns
    • The noncoding segments of nucleic acid that lie
    • between coding regions
  19. Exons
    A coding region of a eukaryotic gene
  20. Spliceosome
    • Several different snRNPs joined with additional
    • proteins to form a larger assembly
  21. Ribozymes
    RNA molecules that function as enzymes
  22. Alternative RNA Splicing
    • Different mRNA molecules are produced from the
    • same primary transcript
  23. Domains
    • A modular architecture consisting of discrete
    • structural and functional regions
  24. tRNA
    • The interpreter of the series of codons along an
    • mRNA molecule
  25. Anticodon
    • A specialized base triplet at one end of a tRNA molecule
    • that recognizes a particular codon on an mRNA molecule
  26. rRNA
    • The ribosomal subunits are constructed
    • of proteins and RNA molecules
  27. A Site
    • It holds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid
    • to be added to the chain
  28. E Site
    • Discharged tRNAs leave the ribosome from this
    • exit site
  29. Point Mutations
    Chemical changes in just one base pair of a gene
  30. Base-pair substitutions
    • The replacement of one nucleotide and its
    • partner with another pair of nucleotides
  31. Missense Mutations
    • A base-pair substitution in which the new codon
    • makes sense in that it still codes for an amino acid
  32. Nonsense Mutations
    • A mutation that changes an amino acid codon to
    • one of the three stop codons
  33. Mutagen
    • A number of physical and chemical agents that
    • interact with DNA in ways that cause mutations
  34. Frameshift Mutation
    • A mutation that occurs whenever the number of
    • nucleotides inserted or deleted is not a multiple of three
  35. P Site
    • A site that holds the tRNA carrying the growing
    • polypeptide chain

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview