Biology Chapter 4 Vocab

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Biology Chapter 4 Vocab
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2010-10-13 21:56:55
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Biology Chapter Vocab
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Chapter 4 Biology vocab flash cards :)
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  1. Active transport
    • Use of plasma membrane carrier protein to move a substance into or out of a cell from lower
    • to high concentration, movement of a molecule or ion from a region of lower
    • concentration
    • 
  2. Carrier protein
    • Protein that combines with and transports a molecule or ion across the plasma membrane
  3. Cell recognition
    protein
    • Glycoprotein that helps the body defend itself against pathogens
  4. Channel protein
    • Forms a channel to allow a particular molecule or ion to cross the plasma membrane
  5. Concentration gradient
    • Gradual change in chemical concentration from one point to another
  6. Crenation
    • The shriveling of ananimal cell in a hypertonic solution due to osmosis
  7. Cytolysis
    • Disruption or bursting of a cell; can be in response to osmosis in a hypotonic solution
  8. Differentially Permeable
    • Ability of plasma membranes to regulate the passage of substances into and out of the cell, allowing some to pass through and preventing the passage of others; sometimes called selectively permeable
  9. Diffusion
    • Movement of molecules or ions from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration; it requires no energy and stops when the distribution is equal
  10. Endocytosis
    • Process by which substances are moved into the cell from the environment by phagocytosis (cellular eating) or pinocytosis (cellular drinking) includes receptor-mediated endocyosis
  11. Enzymatic Protein
    Protein that catalyzes a specific reaction
  12. Exocytosis
    • Process in which an intracellular vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane so tha the vesicle’s contents are released outside the cell
  13. Faciliated Transport
    • Use of a plasma membrane carrier to move a substance into or out of a cell from a higher to a lower concentration; no energy required.
  14. Fluid-mosaic model
    • Model of the plasma membrane based on the changing location and pattern of protein molecules in a fluid phospholipid layer.
  15. glycolipid
    • Lipid in plasma membranes that bears a carbohydrate chain attached to a hydrophobic tail
  16. Glycoprotein
    • Protein in plasma membranes that bears a carbohydrate chain
  17. Hyptertonic
    • Higher solute concentration (less water) than the cell; causes cell to lose water by osmosis
  18. Hypotonic solution
    }Lower solute (more water) concentration than the cytosol of a cell; causes cell to


    • }gain water by osmosis
  19. Isotonic Solution
    • Solution that is equal in solute concentration to that of the cytoplasm of a cell; causes cell to neither lose nor gain water by osmosis
  20. Osmosis
    • Diffusion of water through a differentially permeable membrane
  21. Osmotic Pressure
    • Measure of the tendency of water to move across a differentially permeable membrane; visible as an increase in liquid on the side of the membrane with higher solute concentration
  22. Phagocytosis
    • Process by which amoeboid cells engulf large substances, forming an intracellular vacuole
  23. Pinocytosis
    • Process by which vesicle formation brings macromolecules into the cell
  24. Isotonic Solution
    • Solution that is equal in solute concentration to that of the cytoplasm of a cell; causes cell to neither lose nor gain water by osmosis
  25. Osmosis
    • Diffusion of water through a differentially permeable membrane
  26. Osmotic Pressure
    • Measure of the tendency of water to move across a differentially permeable membrane; visible
    • as an increase in liquid on the side of the membrane with higher solute concentration
  27. Phagocytosis
    • Process by which amoeboid cells engulf large substances, forming an intracellular vacuole
  28. Pinocytosis
    • Process by which vesicle formation brings macromolecules into the cell
  29. Plasmolysis
    • Contraction of the cell contents due to the loss of water
  30. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis
    • A form of pinocytosis that is quite specific because it uses a receptor protein shaped so that a specific molecule, such as a vitamin, peptide hormone, or lipoprotein, can bind to it
  31. Recepotor Proteing
    • }They have a shape
    • that allows a specific molecule to bind to it. The binding of this molecule causes the protein to change its shape and thereby bring about a cellular response
  32. Sodium-Potassium Pump
    • Carrier protein in the plasma membrane that moves sodium ions out of and potassium ions into cells; important in nerve and muscle cells
  33. Solvent
    • Fluid, such as water, that dissolves solutes
  34. Turgor Pressure
    • In plant cells, pressure of the cell contents against the cell wall when the central vacuole is full

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