Biology test one

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lindaphann
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42087
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Biology test one
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2010-10-14 01:47:53
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cell biology
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  1. The synthesis of what biomolecule occurs in the Golgi body?
    glycoprotein, which plays an important role in cell recognition, is synthesized by golgi bodies.
  2. What is synthesized by the golgi bodies?
    Golgi Body is responsible for the synthesis of lysosomes.
  3. what happens in the nucleolus?
    It is part of the nucleus in which the synthesis of RNA and ribosomal subunits take place.
  4. Amino acids are produced during the hydrolysis of..
    Polypeptides - like a protein but is straight molecule, protein has a shape.
  5. What are polysaccharides?
    They are large-chain molecule composed of glucose molecules.
  6. The glucose molecules attach themselves together through dehydration synthesis, which results in the formation of ___________.
    Cellulose, a linear chain of monomeric glucose units.
  7. Triglycerides are formed when ______ and _______ react.
    • fatty acids, and glycerol
    • Triglycerides are formed when flycerol is esterifed by three molecuels of a fatty acid.
  8. What do all biological molecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids have in common??
    They all contain carbon atoms.
  9. What molecule is this?
    Starch
  10. Which element is present in proteins but absent in lipids?
    Nitrogen, proteins are polypeptides that are primarily composed of amio acids and carboxylic groups. Nitrogen is covalently linked to the carboxylic group of the adjacent amio acid to form the peptide bond.
  11. Proteins in the plasma membrane makes up what monomeric unit?
    Amino acids, amino acids form to make protiens in a process that can be labelled synthesis.
  12. Chromosomes are made up of ...?
    DNA and proteins, chromosomes are inside the nucleus and play an important role in heredity.
  13. Which of the following cell organelles is not connected to the endoplasmic reticulum?
    A. Nuclear envelope
    B. Cell membrane
    C. Chloroplast
    D. Ribosome
    D. Ribosome. The ER forms a network of tubules in the cell. Sometimes, these tubules extend from the cell membrane to the nuclear membrane. Ribosomes are present on the surface of the ER.
  14. Which cell organelle produced in the nucleolus plays an important role in protein sunthesis?
    Ribosomes! The bucleolus is the site of ribosome synthesis. Ribosomes play an important role in protein synthesis.
  15. Lysosomes are small vesicles bound by a single membrane. What does a lysosome do?
    Lysosomes contain hydrolyzing enzymes that help in the hydrolysis of food.
  16. The unequal sharing of electrons in water results in its ...?
    Polarity!
  17. Antibodies are made up of ...
    Proteins. Antibodies are the body's most potent defence against antigens.
  18. What is the main function of a Golgi Body?
    Secretion.
  19. The synthesis of what substances is attributed to the Golgi Body?
    Vacuoles
  20. The synthesis of what substances is attributed to the ER??
    Steroids. The ER is involved in the synthesis of steroidal hormones such as testosterone.
  21. What molecule is the structural component of the cell wall?
    Cellulose
  22. What kind of bonds do proteins contain?
    Hydrogen bonding
  23. Why do protiens become denatured?
    It could be a result of extreme temperature change and in pH, and to the presence of heavey metals.
  24. Describe two different functions of the protiens in the cell membrane.
    1) Channel protiens help in the movement of ions and substances across the cell membrane.

    2) Glycoproteins help in cell recognition and identification of foreign bodies (antigens). Hence, they mediate in antibody response.
  25. Describe two different functions of the proteins found in the nucleus.
    1)DNA polymerase is an enzyme that helps in the replication fo double-helical DNA.

    2) Actin helps in the formation of spindle during cell division.
  26. What is the role of the nucleolus?
    The synthesis of ribosomes occurs in the nucleolus. Ribosomes play an important role in protein synthesis and translation.
  27. What are enzymes?
    All enzymes are proteins produced with the help of ribosomes.
  28. What is glycogen do for animal cells?
    They are a storage carbohydrate in animal cells.
  29. What do glycerols do?
    Glycerol is a component of lipids released during the metabolism of fats.
  30. What does starch do in plant cells?
    Starch is a carbohydrate that is synthesized in plant cells.
  31. Cellulose, the structural component of plant cells is a ..?
    linear polymer of glucose units
  32. Describe how the functions of the ER, golgi body, and lysosomes are related.
    The ER and the golgi body together form a part of the secretary pathway. ER provides precursors to various enzymes and secretory substances to the Golgi body. The golgi body processes and packages these substances and releases them in the form of secretory vesicles. Lysosomes are cell organelles that contain digestive enzymes. They are produced by the Golgi body.
  33. What are four things water can do?
    It can transport, regulate body temp, act as a universal solvent, and act as a lubricant.
  34. How does water regulate body temp? What are some examples?
    Water, because of its high specific heat and mobility, helps in the uniform distribution of heat in the body. It also evaporates in the form of sweat and carries away excess heat from the body. Ex. sweat, water helps maintain temp at 37 degrees.
  35. How does water act as a universal solvent? What are some examples?
    Water helps in dissolving polar solutes and thus helps in the uniform distribution of materials. Easily dissolves substances to facilitate chemical reactions. Water is needed to get rid of cellular wastes in urine.
  36. How does water act as a lubricant? What are some examples?
    Water keeps the surface of the tissues moist. The mucous secreted in the alimentary and respiratory tracts acts as a lubricant. Example, in saliva and joints
  37. How does water help transport?
    Helps in movement of molcules in blood and movement of wastes in colon.
  38. Almost all living matter is made up of 4 elements, what are they?
    C, O , H , N
  39. The 4 elements (C, O, H, N) are the components of small molecules called...?
    monomers
  40. Monomers are components of large molecules called..?
    Polymers
  41. Dehydration synthesis is...?
    It forms polymers and requires the removal of water.
  42. What is hydrolysis?
    It is the breakdown of polymers and requires addition of water.
  43. What are antibodies?
    They are proteins that help in defending against infection.
  44. What do plasmas proteins help with?
    They help with blood clotting and with regulation of osmotic pressure
  45. What three things do proteins act as?
    • enzymes; speed up chemical reactions
    • hormones; chemical messengers
    • carriers/chammels; to carry martierals in and out of cell
  46. Two amino acids are joined together by a ________ during synthesis to form a __________
    peptide bond, dipeptide
  47. Many amino acids join together to form a _________
    polypeptide
  48. Poly peptide that acquires a particular shape and function is called a ________
    protein
  49. What is protein denaturation?
    An irreversible change in a proteins shape causing teh loss of function.
  50. What five reasons woulc NOT occur because of denaturation of protiens in your body?
    • 1. cellular respiration
    • 2. muscle growth or repair
    • 3. blood clotting
    • 4. regulation of osmotic pressure
    • 5. efficient oxygen transport in blood.
  51. What are three main types of lipids?
    • 1. steroids
    • 2. phospholipids
    • 3. neutral fats
  52. what is something similar about mitochondria and the nucleus?
    Mitochondria and the nucleus are double-membrane-bound structures that contain outer and inner membranes. They also both contain DNA.
  53. What does the mitochondria do? What main molecuels doe sit need to carry out its function?
    It provides energy(cellular respiration). They serve as "battery chargers". Carbon dioxide and water are released form mitochondria as waste.The oxygen and glucose are needed to carry out this function.
  54. What is ATP molecules?
    ATP molecules of energy. Rechargeable batteries that all living things run on.
  55. What can you see that makes it a cell membrane?
    The two layers made of phospholipids.
  56. What is villi?
    Villi is a special feature in cell membrane that increases surface area for absorbtion.
  57. Where in the body would a cell membrane with villi be found?
    Small intestines, kidneys.
  58. What does the golgi body do?
    It packages, modified and stores, and distributes proteins. It forms vesicles and lysosomes.
  59. What is the mos tcommon monosaccharide in the body?
    Glucose; which is teh primary energy source for cell respiration and the buildling block for larger carbolhydrates.
  60. Where is glycogen produced in animal?
    Liver
  61. The inner membrane of the mitochondria is called the...?
    Cristae!
  62. What is the diff between the funtions of ROUGH ER and SMOOTH ER?
    Rough ER is responsible for production and transport of proteins while Smooth Er is involed in the production of steriods, hormones, and detoxification of drugs and alcohol.
  63. What does the nucleus do?
    It basically controls the whole cell. It stores the genetic information (chromosomes) and so controls cell reproduction and protein synthesis.
  64. The nucleolus is composed of what? And what does it produce?
    It is composed of chromation, rRNA and proteins and it produces ribosomes.
  65. What is chloroplast? And what does it do?
    They are in plant organelles that contain chlorophyll and are the site of photosynthesis.
  66. What is the equation for cellular respiration?
    After the three steps in cellular respiration glucose and oxygen are turned into carbon dioxide, water, and energy in the following equation:

    C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
  67. How does an amino acid look like?
  68. Explain the 7 steps of how protein is connected with Rough ER, Golgi body , vesicle and cell membrane.
    • 1. Ribosomes on the rough Er manufacture proteins which end up in the central space.
    • 2. A vesicle forms, carrying teh protein.
    • 3. Vesicle is transported tow ards Golgi body.
    • 4. Vesicle joins with the Golgi Body placing the protein inside.
    • 5. The protein is passed to a diff section of teh Golgi Body. This requres ATP.
    • 6. The protein is modified by enzymes in the Golgi Body.
    • 7. The vesicle may move towards the cell membrane. The vesicle joins with the cell membrane; the protein is released.

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