Digestive System - 1

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Digestive System - 1
2010-10-14 18:05:25
food digest eat intestines mouth

Anatomy and function of Digestive System
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    • A) stomach
    • B) Esophagus
  1. acinar cell of pancreas
    • A) stomach
    • B) esophagus
  2. Esophagus circular muscle fiber
  3. esophogus lamina propria
  4. esophagus lamina propria
  5. esophagus
  6. esophagus muscular mucosa
  7. Function of Digestive System
    • 1. Protection
    • 2. Digestive processes
  8. What does the digestive system protect from?
    • 1. corrosive effect of digest. acid and enzyme
    • 2. mechanical stress such as abrasion
    • 3. bacteria
  9. what are the digestive processes?
    • 1. ingestion- take food in by mouth
    • 2. digestion- chemical breakdown
    • 3. secretion- release water, acid, buffer, enzymes into lumen tract
    • 4. absorption- passage of end product of digestion from GI tract into blood or lymph
    • 5. excretion- removal of waste product
  10. define defecation?
    emptying of rectum
  11. what is mechanical processing?
    mechanical processing- breaks from big peices to small pieces and how we propel the food through digestive system.
  12. esophagus lamina propria
  13. esophagus muscularis mucosa
  14. esophagus muscularis mucosa
  15. esophagus stratified squamous epithelium
  16. What layers form the Mucosa layer of GI tract?
    • 1) Epithelium
    • 2) Lamina Propria
    • 3) Muscularis Mucosa
  17. What layers form the GI tract from inner to outer?
    • 1) lumen
    • 2) Mucosa
    • 3) Submucosa
    • 4) Muscularis
    • 5) Serosa
  18. Describe 3 layers of Mucosa?
    1) Epithelium- (stratified squamous) in mouth, pharnyx, esophagus, anus. (simple collumnar) in rest. Goblet cells secrete mucous onto cell surfaces. enteroendocrine cells secrete hormones

    • 2) Lamina Propria- thin layer areolar tissue
    • 3) muscularis mucosa- thin layer smooth muscle contains circular and longitudinal fibers which cause folds in muscularis layer which increases movement and absorption.
  19. esophagus adventitia
  20. esophagus epithelium (stratified squamous)
  21. esophagus epithelium (stratified squamous)
  22. Histology of submucosa and fxn?
    Dense irregular connective tissue containing exocrine glands and lymphatic tissue.

    controls vasoconstriction adn local movement by muscularis mucosa smooth muscle.
  23. what is serosa? adventitia?
    serosa- serous membrane covering all organs or walls of cavity not open to outside. secretes slippery fluid that is formed of simple squamous epithelium

    adventitia- fibrous connective tissue
  24. esophagus longitudinal muscle fiber
  25. Digestion refers to:
    chemical breakdown of food
  26. functions of digestion?
    • mechanical processing
    • absorption
    • compaction
    • ingestion
  27. intestinal hormone that stimulates secretion of duodenal glands?
  28. portion of small intestine attaching to large instestine?
  29. what triggers gastric secretion of gastric phase?
    entry of food into stomach
  30. what does enteroendocrine cells of stomach secrete?
  31. if a decrease level of bile salt in bile what does it interfere with?
    digestion of fat
  32. which is greater?
    pH of blood in gastric veins during digestion of large meal or following a fast?
    during digestion of large meal. This is when pH is stimulated
  33. if duodenal papilla blocked what would happen?
    • interfere with neutralization of chyme
    • decrease protien digestion
    • decrease carb digestion
    • impair fat digestion
  34. what are plicae circulares?
    transverse folds in mucosa and submucosa of sm intestine
  35. what are gastric pits?
    pockets in lining of stomach that contain secretory cells
  36. what is myenteric plexus?
    network of neurons
  37. intestinal hormone stimulates pancreas to release watery secretion high in bicarbonate ion?
  38. Intestinal phase of gastric digestion include?
    • conrol rate of gastric emptying
    • neural and endocrine reflexes involved
    • help ensure functions of sm intestine work with effeciency
    • begins when chyme enters sm intestine
  39. when chyme reaches duodenum what happens?
    blood levels of secretin increase
  40. if parotid gland duct is blocked?
    interferes with carb digestion in mouth.
  41. what does pepsin enzyme digests?
  42. where are sensory nerve cells, parasympathetic ganglia and sympathetic postganglionic fibers found?
    submucosal plexus
  43. the pancrease secretes what fluid in response to secretin?
    rich in bicarbonate
  44. intestine hormone stimulates gallbladder to release bile?
    Cholecystokinin (CCK)
  45. pancrease secretes fluid in response to cholecystokinin?
    rich in enzymes
  46. which cranial nerves control motor fibers responsible for digestion?
    cranial nerve X
  47. if muscularis mucosa is contracted what happens?
    shape of intestinal lumen altered and epithelial pleats adn folds move.
  48. what does gastroileal reflex do?
    make room for more intestinal content by moving chyme to colon
  49. modifcation of digestive epithelium that allows expansion of organ
    presence of folds or pleats
  50. proteinase produced in stomachs of babies so they can digest milk?
  51. intestinal hormone stimulate release of insulin form pancreatic islet ?
    gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)
  52. why is stomach able to distend as it recieves food?
    • 1. loose tissue in form of rugae.
    • 2. smooth muscle of stomach is elastic
    • 3. increase of sympathetic stimulation druing filling of stomach to decrease tonus of gastric smooth muscle
    • 4. mucosa of stomach is elastic
  53. fxn of large intestine?
    reabsorption of water and compaction of feces
  54. if carbonic anhydrase in parietal cells are blocked?
    high pH during gastric digestion
  55. what do lacteals do?
    carry product of digestion that wont pass through walls of blood capillaries
  56. peristalsis?
    waves of muscle contraction tha propel contents of digestive tract from one point to another
  57. intestine hormone stimulates parietal cells and chief cells in stomach to secrete what fluid?
    intestinal gastrin
  58. if hormone cholecystokinin is blocked ?
    composition of pancreatic secretion affected
  59. where carb digestion begins?
  60. disease that causes large portion of gastric mucosa to atrophy, resulting in less secretion by gastric glands.
    anemia (intrinsic factor necessary for RBC production)
  61. what regulates digestive system activities?
    • hormones
    • parasympathetic/sympathetic neurons
    • contents of digestive tract
  62. plicae and intestinal villi do what?
    increase surface area of mucosa of small intestine
  63. which is false about the secretions from salivary glands?

    A) contain enzymes for digestion of lipid
    B) help lubricate oral cavity and contents
    C) contain enzymes for digestion of carb
    D) help control bacterial population
    E) mostly water
    A) contain enzymes for digestion of lipid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  64. what does enterokinase do?
    activates protien digesting enzymes
  65. function of oral cavity?
    • 1. analyze material before swallow
    • 2. lubrication
    • 3. mechanical processing of food
    • 4. digest carb
  66. what happens during deglutition?
    • soft palate elevates
    • upper esophageal sphincter opens
  67. salivation d/t stimulation of tongue is a result of what ?
    parasympathetic innervation
  68. most products of fat digestion are absorbed by ?
    lympghatic vessels
  69. what enhances absorption effectiveness of small intestine?
    • 1. plicae circulares
    • 2. microvilli
    • 3. intestinal movement
    • 4. villi
  70. what makes up exocrine portion of pancreas?
    pancreatidc acini
  71. when is pharyngeal phase initiated?
    bolus comes in contact with pharyngeal arches
  72. function of toungue?
    • 1. mechanical processing food
    • 2. manipulation of food
    • 3. sensory analysis of food
    • 4. aiding in speech
  73. is pharyngeal phase voluntary or involuntary?
  74. what happens during deglutition?
    • breathing stops and airways open
    • vocal cords close
    • lower esophogeal sphincter contracts
    • soft palate lifts
  75. what is responsible for primary water absorption?
    large intestine
  76. do salavary glands contain enzymes for digestion of simple sugar?
  77. portion of small intestine attached to pylorus of stomach?
  78. location of digestive organs?
    • pancrease extends from duodenum to spleen
    • gallbladder is on undersurface of right lobe of liver
    • middle part of small intestine is called jejunum
  79. which teeth are blade shaped for cutting or chopping?
  80. function of liver?
    • synthesis and secretion of bile
    • synthesis of plasma protien
    • inactivation of toxin
    • storage of glycogen adn lipid reserves
  81. hormone NOT associated with small intestine?
    intrinsic factor
  82. function of digestive tract lining?
    • safeguard nearby tissue
    • digest swallowed bacteria
    • protect from digestive acid
    • protect from abrasion
  83. which process is ENTIRELY under nervous control?
  84. what happens during cephalic phase of gastric digestion?
    sight, smell, though,or taste trigger parasympathetic impulses
  85. function of Kupffer cell of liver
    they are phagocytic
  86. which teeth are pointed and adapted for tearing and shreddding?
  87. what stimulates gastric emptying?
    • distention of stomach
    • gastrin
    • partially digested protien
    • vagus nerve
  88. organ responsible for dehydration and compaction of indigestible material?
    large intestine
  89. function of salivary secretion?
    • aid in chewing and swallow
    • initiate digestion of starch
    • needed for taste
    • moisten and lubricate food
  90. example of mastication?
    mechanical digestion
  91. what does pancreas produce?
    • lipases and amylase
    • nucleases
    • peptidases and protienases
  92. structures containing goblet cells?
    • stomach
    • transverse colon
    • small and large intestine
  93. which teeth are with flattened crowns and prominent ridges for grinding?
  94. where absorption of nutrients happens?
    small intestine
  95. teeth also known as canines?
  96. primary chemical digestion in large intestine will happen because of what enzyme
    bacterial enzyme
  97. pancreas produces why type of enzyme in form of proenzyme?
  98. what is segmentation?
    chyme and digestive juices mixing by localized contractions of muscularis of sm intestine
  99. function of canine or cuspid ?
    tearing and ripping
  100. function of stomach?
    • store ingested food
    • denaturation of protien
    • initiation of protien digestion
    • mechanical breakdown of food
  101. middle portion of small intestine?
  102. where is bile stored?
  103. muscularis layer contains what muscles?
    • skeletal muscle
    • smooth muscle
    • (so has both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation)
  104. plica cirularis?
    folds that can NOT stretch, and only for increasing surface area for absorption.
  105. which teeth will crush, mash and grind food when it enters mouth?
  106. what is secreted by parietal cells?
    hydrochloric acid
  107. which organ is in charge of digestion and absorption of nutrients?
    small intestine
  108. where are brush border enzymes found?
    small intestine
  109. does mucosa of large intestine have villa and plica?
    no it is smooth with no villa or plica
  110. what fluid do goblet cells secrete?
  111. what hormone stimulates the secretion of the stomach and contraction of stomach wall?
  112. when does peristalsis occur?
    during esophageal phase of deglutition
  113. what fluid do cheif cells secrete?
  114. what hormone is required for absorption of vitamin b12?
    intrinsic factor
  115. what hormone controls emptying bile from gallbladder?
  116. what happens when hydrolytic reactions catalyze trypsin?
    peptides are produced
  117. retroperitoneal organs (list)?
    • Duodenum
    • Pancreas
    • Kidneys
    • Adrenal glands
    • Bladder
    • Ascending colon
    • Descending colon
    • Rectum
  118. permanent teeth are called ?
    secondary dentition
  119. anal canal
  120. anal canal
  121. anus
  122. branch of hepatic portal vein
  123. branch of hepatic portal vein
  124. colon
  125. haustra
  126. ileum
  127. labial frenulum
  128. liver
  129. palatoglossal arch