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chapter 23 extraoral radiography
what radiography is used to image large areas of the skull or jaws?
the extraoral radiograph shows an overal image of the ____ and ____
skull and jaws
what is extraoral film typically used for?(7)
evaluate large areas of skull and jaw
evaluate growth and development
evaluate impacted teeth
detect disease, lesions and conditions of jaws
examine extent of large lesions
what is an special extension arm used with the pano tube head for extraoral projections?
cephalostate or craniostat
what are the sizes for extraoral films?
5 X 7 inch
8 X 10 inch
how are extraoral projection cassettes different than pano cassettes?
they are rigid and constructed of metal and plastic
device used to reduce the amount of scatter radiation that reaches an extraoral film during exposure
what is a grid composed of?
series of thin lead strips embedded in a material
what is lateral jaw radiography used to examine?
the posterior region of the mandible
what are three examples of people that are good to use lateral jaw radiography?
limited jaw opening due to fracture or swelling
pt that have difficulty with intraoral
what are the two techniques of lateral jaw projection?
body of mandible
ramus of mandible
what does the lateral jaw projection-body of mandible demonstrate?
mandibular premolar and molar regions as well as the inferior border of the mandible
what does the lateral jaw projection-ramus of mandible demonstrate?
ramus from the angle of the mandible to the condyle
what is skull radiography used to examine?
bones of the face and skull
what is skull radiography most often used for?
oral surgery and orthodontics
what are the five most common skull radiographs used in dentistry?
lateral cephalometric projection
reverse towne projection
what is the purpose of the lateral cephalometric projection and what does it demonstrate?
evaluate facial growth and development, trauma, and disease or abnormalities
demonstrates bones of the face and skull as well as soft tissues profile of face
which projection is used to demonstrate the frontal and ethmoid sinuses, the orbits and the nasal cavity (2)?
what is the difference between the posteroanterior projection and the waters projection?
posteroanterior the forehead and nose touch the cassette (looking down)
waters chin touches cassette (look up)
what projection demonstrates the sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses and the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus
what is the purpose of the submentovertex projection?
identify the position of the condyles
besides the sphenoid, ethmoid sinuses and the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus what else is the submentovertex used to demonstrate?
base of skull and evaluate fratures of the zygomatic arch
which projection is used to identify fractures of the condylar neck and ramus area?
reverse towne projection
which projection involves a wide open mouth with the chin on the chest?
what is the purpose of TMJ radiography?
show the bone and the relationship of the joint components
what cannot be seen in TMJ radiography?
aricular disk and other soft tissues
what are the two techniques used in TMJ radiography?
which projection is used to evaluate the superior surface of the condyle and the articular eminence?
transcranial projection (lindblom technique)
when the mouth is wide open what is used to evaluate movement of the condyle and compare joint space?
which type of TMJ radiography provides the most definitive imaging of the TMJ's bony components?
cone-beam imaging refers to the use of a _______ xray beam to acquire an image. Cone beam technology uses a _______ rotation field, similar to the ______ radiography.