Psyc 161: Psychology of the Self
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Self vs. Personality psychology blur in four areas. What are they?
- 1) What we really are influences the way we think about ourselves
- 2) What we really are influences the way we feel about ourselves.
- 3) Self is only one aspect of personality (feelings and thoughts)
- 4) Self Report is often used to measure personality
Refers to the way people feel about themselves
- - Self Esteem
- -Self presentation
- -Self regulation
- -Goals and Motivation
- -Social Determinants of self
- -Relationships and groups
- -Social comparison
- -Self Evaluative motives
What are the 3 components of selfhood?
- 1) Reflexive consciousness
- 2) Interpersonal being
- 3) Executive Function
Thorndike's Law of Effect
- Thorndike placed a cat or chick in a box and waited for them to make a desired response and when they did he would let them out and let them get food. Each time they did the response faster and towards the end they were doing immediately after being placed in the box. Is is a Stimulus(box)-response(action) bond.
- Called law of effect because behavior is ruled by the past and the reinforcement it was met with in the past . It is not ruled with the expectancy of the future or the rewards it may bring.
- Reality compared to the way the world appears to the individual
- -What we perceive is not necessarily the same as what exists in the external world.
- -Our behavior depends more on how we perceive the world than on how the world really is.
- -Killed study of self for a long time (1915-1955)
- Believed in Stimulus-Response links
- Though that emotions and feelings (epiphenomenal) are not contributing to the behavior.
George Herbert Mead
Believed that the self arises from the social experience and that the self is essentially a social structure.
Charles H. Cooley
- Focused on connection btwn society and individual
- "Looking Glass self"
- -We imagine how we must appear to others
- - we imagine the judgement of that appearance
- -We develop our self through the judgement of others
- The thinker
- It is actively perceiving, thinking and seeing
- 1) Material Self- Individuals body and possessions. Things that we have that agree with who I am
- 2) Social self- image of self portrayed to others
- 3) Spiritual Self- When we think of ourselves as thinkers; elicits (pride) and goals
- Shaped the study of the self
- Distinguished between the "Me" and the "I"
Believed we had a tabula rasa, which is an empty mind, and we are shaped by our experiences, sensations and reflections and by the people around us.
- Portrayed self in the terms of sensory experience.
- Believed in basic pursuit of self interest so he thought that we had to give up certain freedoms in order to live longer and accomplish more of what we wanted.
Also believed that the body and soul were two distinct entities.
- Defined the soul as the core essence of a being, but argued against its having a separate existence.
- He viewed as body and soul as inseperable.
- Soul=essence of person
- Thought that when the body dies the soul was born in another body
- Thought as soul in 3 components
- 1) Logos-Reason
- 2) Thymos- Emotion
- 3) Eros- Desires
- Viewed body and soul as two distinct objects
Order of the important figures in the Historical Study of the Self
- -Rene Descartes
- -Thomas Hobbes
- -John Locke
- -William James
- -Charles H. Cooley
- -George Herbert Mead
- -Nature and definition of self
- -Self schemas and the activation of self knowledge
- Self Structure
- -To look at ones self and reflect who you are
What is object permanence and when is it usually achieved?
- The awareness that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible
- Typically achieved btwn 8-9 months
What are the adaptive functions of the symbolic self?
- Symbolic self plays a crucial role in human thinking, feeling, and behaving.
- -We are more sensitive when we hear our own name or some self-relevant information
- -Avoid places that won't leave behind positive feelings about the self
- Allows for goal setting and goal consistent behavior.
What is the symbolic self?
- We see ourselves as objects.
- The attributes and cognitive ability presented by every organism
Meads Symbolic Interactionism Theory
- Individuals adopt the perspectives of others and imagine how they appear from others' point of view and act accordingly.
- Ex: Child throws food at first but as they mature the ability to take the perspective of the parents and how they don't like that shapes them and their behavior into what the parents would like to see.
- Ability to distinguish ones self from other people
- Babies realize that they see different things than other people.
- Typically happens by the end of the first year.
Self recognition in infants...How early does it occur?
As early as 3-5 months infants are aware of the movement in their legs.
When did the symbolic self develop?
- Homo erectus
- -humans began to exhibit signs of complex social organization
- -brain exhibited substantial increases in compacity and complexity
Gardner, Gabriel, Hochschild
- -Independence (control)
-Trivia game (unimportant)