A&PII Lymphatic Part A
Card Set Information
A&PII Lymphatic Part A
MGCCC APII Lymph Part
A&P II Lymphatic System Part A
Fluid within lymphatic system
filter and contain lymph
fluid found in the interstitial space
what is the interstitial space?
tissue space, the space that surrounds the cells of a tissue
origin of interstitial fluid
plasma is filtered through the arterial ends of the capillaries into the interstitial space and it becomes interstitial fluid
description of starting points of lymph vessels
begin as blind starting points in the tissue spaces between the cells
Can large proteins be absorbed at the venous ends of the capillaries?
excess interstitial fluid...
enters the lymph capillaries and becomes lymph
Ultimate destination of lymph?
the blood system
3 functions of lymph
drains protein containing fluid from the tissue spaces
transports fats from the GI system to the blood
acts in surveillance and defense
3 things lymph protects the body from
another term for lymph vessels
3 main types of lymphatics (lymph vessels)
microscopic tubes originating in the interstitial space at blind starting points with flap-like one way valves
lines lymphatic capillaries
how are lymphatic capillaries different from blood capillaries?
lymphatic capillaries are larger (so they can take in larger proteins)
where are lymphatic capillaries found?
most of the body, but not in non-vascular areas or the brain
intestinal lymphatic capillaries
tiny finger-like projections that come out from the small intestine
they increase the absorptive area and surface area of the small intestines
function of intestinal lacteals
absorb fats from the intestines
How are lymphatic and blood veins similar?
internal coat of endothelial cells
a thin middle coat of smooth muscle
an external coat of connective tissue
Describe lymphatic veins
structure similar to blood veins (inner -endothelium, middle - thin smooth muscle, outer - connective tissue)
numerous valves to prevent back flow of lymph
prominent feature of lymphatic veins
how many lymphatic ducts are there? Name them.
Right lymphatic duct
Left lymphatic duct (thoracic duct)
area of the body the right lymphatic duct drains
upper right quarter of the body
What blood vein does the right lyphatic duct enter?
right subclavian vein
How long is the right lymphatic duct?
another name for left lymphatic duct
area of body thoracic duct drains
remaining 3/4ths of the body
where does the thoracic duct drain?
left subclavian vein
lymphatic reservoir at the beginning of the thoracic duct
where does lymph come from that drains into the cisterna chyli?
from legs, kidneys, and intestines
body cavities the thoracic duct traverses
thoracic and abdominal cavities
The thoracic duct penetrates the diaphragm at the _________ ___________.
How long is the thoracic duct?
1 1/2 feet
How is lymph circulated?
driven primarily through the action of skeletal muscles and by breathing
Describe rate of lymph flow
insures that lymph only flows in one direction
one way valves
2 main groupings of lymphatic tissue
size and shape of typical lymph node
depressed area on one side of a lymph node where lymphatic vessels leave the node
direction of flow in hilar lymphatic vessels
efferent (leaving node)
hilar vessels are called...
characterizes direction of flow of the lymphatic vessels on the convex surface of a lymph node
afferent (entering node)
enter lymph node along the convex cortical side
which are more numerous, afferent or efferent lymph vessels in lymph nodes?
another name for the convex, or outer portion, of a lymph node?
having to do with the cortex or outer portion
curving or bulging outward
lymph vessels that enter a lymph node are called..
center of the lymph node
what partitions the medulla into compartments (nodules)?
compartments in the lymph node
What is located within the nodules of a lymph node?
what is located within the trabecular sinuses of the lymph node?
they are lined with lymphocytes and phagocytic cells
purpose of lymphocytes and phagocytic cells within the trabeculae sinuses of a lymph node
destroy bacteria, viruses, cancer cells and other foreign material
rate of movement of lymph within the lymph nodes
very slow since the nodes act as a filter for the lymph
knowledge of the lymph system is important in the diagnosis of what disease?
the prediction of course or outcome of a disease or disorder
chances of recovery from a disease
What is knowledge of the lymphatic system especially useful in treating cancers?
cancer often metastasizes by way of the lymphatics
Process by which cancer cells move from one part of the body to another
are lymph nodes spaces evenly through out the body?
No, they are more prevalent in certain areas
2 terms to describe general locations of lymph glands
superficial lymph nodes are found....
neck (cervical nodes)
arm pit (axillary nodes)
groin (inguinal nodes)
lymph glands of neck
lymph nodes of arm pit
lymph nodes of the groin
Superficial nodes are easily __________.
felt with the hand
deep lymph nodes are found....
3 lymph organs
3 sets of tonsils
palatine tonsils (pair)
lingual tonsils (pair)
tonsils easily seen in the throat
medical term for removal of tonsils
another name for pharyngeal tonsil
is pharyngeal tonsil a single or paired structure?
Where is the pharyngeal tonsil located?
imbedded in the posterior roof of the nasopharynx
where are lingual tonsils located?
the base of the tongue
What characterizes the locations of the tonsils?
strategically located to protect against ingested foreign organisms
largest lymph organ
Where is the spleen located?
beneath the diaphragm to the left of the stomach
What types of pulp does the spleen contain?
white and red
White pulp of the spleen consists of...
Red pulp of the spleen composed of .....
sinuses containing blood
3 functions of the spleen
store lymphocytes (especially B lymphocytes)
phagocytize worn out or injured RBCs
filter and store blood
common complication of ruptured spleen
requires immediate surgery to prevent exsanguination (bleeding out)
shape of thymus gland
location of thymus
in the superior mediastinum immediately behind the sternum
The thymus is very ______________ in infants and children, but becomes ____________ as people age.
function of the thymus gland
production of T-lymphocytes
T-lymphocytes are derived from....
hemocytoblasts (stem cells)
In addition to the spleen, thymus, and tonsils, what are also sometimes considered lymph organs?
the lymph node system and bone marrow
What happens to the large protein molecules that can't be reabsorbed at the venous ends of the capillaries?
They enter the lymphatic capillaries