A&PII Lymphatic Part A

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Anonymous
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42142
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A&PII Lymphatic Part A
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2010-10-14 11:27:28
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MGCCC APII Lymph Part
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A&P II Lymphatic System Part A
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  1. Fluid within lymphatic system
    lymph
  2. conducts lymph
    lymph vessels
  3. filter and contain lymph
    lymph nodes
  4. fluid found in the interstitial space
    interstitial fluid
  5. what is the interstitial space?
    tissue space, the space that surrounds the cells of a tissue
  6. origin of interstitial fluid
    plasma is filtered through the arterial ends of the capillaries into the interstitial space and it becomes interstitial fluid
  7. description of starting points of lymph vessels
    begin as blind starting points in the tissue spaces between the cells
  8. Can large proteins be absorbed at the venous ends of the capillaries?
    no
  9. excess interstitial fluid...
    enters the lymph capillaries and becomes lymph
  10. Ultimate destination of lymph?
    the blood system
  11. 3 functions of lymph
    • drains protein containing fluid from the tissue spaces
    • transports fats from the GI system to the blood
    • acts in surveillance and defense
  12. 3 things lymph protects the body from
    • foreign substances
    • microbes
    • cancer cells
  13. another term for lymph vessels
    lymphatics
  14. 3 main types of lymphatics (lymph vessels)
    • lymphatic capillaries
    • lymphatic veins
    • lymphatic ducts
  15. microscopic tubes originating in the interstitial space at blind starting points with flap-like one way valves
    lymphatic capillaries
  16. lines lymphatic capillaries
    endothelial cells
  17. how are lymphatic capillaries different from blood capillaries?
    lymphatic capillaries are larger (so they can take in larger proteins)
  18. where are lymphatic capillaries found?
    most of the body, but not in non-vascular areas or the brain
  19. intestinal lymphatic capillaries
    lacteals
  20. tiny finger-like projections that come out from the small intestine
    they increase the absorptive area and surface area of the small intestines
    villi
  21. function of intestinal lacteals
    absorb fats from the intestines
  22. How are lymphatic and blood veins similar?
    • possess:
    • internal coat of endothelial cells
    • a thin middle coat of smooth muscle
    • an external coat of connective tissue
  23. Describe lymphatic veins
    • structure similar to blood veins (inner -endothelium, middle - thin smooth muscle, outer - connective tissue)
    • numerous valves to prevent back flow of lymph
  24. prominent feature of lymphatic veins
    valves
  25. how many lymphatic ducts are there? Name them.
    • 2
    • Right lymphatic duct
    • Left lymphatic duct (thoracic duct)
  26. area of the body the right lymphatic duct drains
    upper right quarter of the body
  27. What blood vein does the right lyphatic duct enter?
    right subclavian vein
  28. How long is the right lymphatic duct?
    1.5cm
  29. another name for left lymphatic duct
    thoracic duct
  30. area of body thoracic duct drains
    remaining 3/4ths of the body
  31. where does the thoracic duct drain?
    left subclavian vein
  32. lymphatic reservoir at the beginning of the thoracic duct
    cisterna chyli
  33. where does lymph come from that drains into the cisterna chyli?
    from legs, kidneys, and intestines
  34. body cavities the thoracic duct traverses
    thoracic and abdominal cavities
  35. The thoracic duct penetrates the diaphragm at the _________ ___________.
    diaphragmatic hiatus
  36. How long is the thoracic duct?
    • 40 cm
    • 1 1/2 feet
  37. How is lymph circulated?
    driven primarily through the action of skeletal muscles and by breathing
  38. Describe rate of lymph flow
    very sluggish
  39. insures that lymph only flows in one direction
    one way valves
  40. 2 main groupings of lymphatic tissue
    • lymph nodes
    • lymph organs
  41. size and shape of typical lymph node
    • oval structure
    • 1mm-2.5cm
  42. depressed area on one side of a lymph node where lymphatic vessels leave the node
    hilus
  43. direction of flow in hilar lymphatic vessels
    efferent (leaving node)
  44. hilar vessels are called...
    efferent vessels
  45. characterizes direction of flow of the lymphatic vessels on the convex surface of a lymph node
    afferent (entering node)
  46. enter lymph node along the convex cortical side
    afferent vessels
  47. which are more numerous, afferent or efferent lymph vessels in lymph nodes?
    afferent (entering)
  48. another name for the convex, or outer portion, of a lymph node?
    cortical
  49. having to do with the cortex or outer portion
    cortical
  50. curving or bulging outward
    convex
  51. lymph vessels that enter a lymph node are called..
    afferent vessels
  52. center of the lymph node
    medulla
  53. what partitions the medulla into compartments (nodules)?
    trabeculae
  54. compartments in the lymph node
    nodules
  55. What is located within the nodules of a lymph node?
    trabecular sinuses
  56. what is located within the trabecular sinuses of the lymph node?
    they are lined with lymphocytes and phagocytic cells
  57. purpose of lymphocytes and phagocytic cells within the trabeculae sinuses of a lymph node
    destroy bacteria, viruses, cancer cells and other foreign material
  58. rate of movement of lymph within the lymph nodes
    very slow since the nodes act as a filter for the lymph
  59. knowledge of the lymph system is important in the diagnosis of what disease?
    cancer
  60. the prediction of course or outcome of a disease or disorder
    chances of recovery from a disease
    prognosis
  61. What is knowledge of the lymphatic system especially useful in treating cancers?
    cancer often metastasizes by way of the lymphatics
  62. Process by which cancer cells move from one part of the body to another
    metastasis
  63. are lymph nodes spaces evenly through out the body?
    No, they are more prevalent in certain areas
  64. 2 terms to describe general locations of lymph glands
    • superficial
    • deep
  65. superficial lymph nodes are found....
    • neck (cervical nodes)
    • arm pit (axillary nodes)
    • groin (inguinal nodes)
  66. lymph glands of neck
    cervical nodes
  67. lymph nodes of arm pit
    axillary nodes
  68. lymph nodes of the groin
    inguinal nodes
  69. Superficial nodes are easily __________.
    palpated
  70. felt with the hand
    palpated
  71. deep lymph nodes are found....
    • iliac
    • lumbar
    • thoracic
    • omentum areas
  72. 3 lymph organs
    • tonsils
    • spleen
    • thymus
  73. 3 sets of tonsils
    • palatine tonsils (pair)
    • pharyngeal tonsil
    • lingual tonsils (pair)
  74. tonsils easily seen in the throat
    palatine tonsils
  75. medical term for removal of tonsils
    tonsillectomy
  76. another name for pharyngeal tonsil
    adenoids
  77. is pharyngeal tonsil a single or paired structure?
    single
  78. Where is the pharyngeal tonsil located?
    imbedded in the posterior roof of the nasopharynx
  79. where are lingual tonsils located?
    the base of the tongue
  80. What characterizes the locations of the tonsils?
    strategically located to protect against ingested foreign organisms
  81. largest lymph organ
    spleen
  82. Where is the spleen located?
    beneath the diaphragm to the left of the stomach
  83. What types of pulp does the spleen contain?
    white and red
  84. White pulp of the spleen consists of...
    lymphatic tissue
  85. Red pulp of the spleen composed of .....
    sinuses containing blood
  86. 3 functions of the spleen
    • store lymphocytes (especially B lymphocytes)
    • phagocytize worn out or injured RBCs
    • filter and store blood
  87. common complication of ruptured spleen
    requires immediate surgery to prevent exsanguination (bleeding out)
  88. shape of thymus gland
    bilobed
  89. location of thymus
    in the superior mediastinum immediately behind the sternum
  90. The thymus is very ______________ in infants and children, but becomes ____________ as people age.
    • conspicuous
    • smaller
  91. function of the thymus gland
    production of T-lymphocytes
  92. T-lymphocytes are derived from....
    hemocytoblasts (stem cells)
  93. In addition to the spleen, thymus, and tonsils, what are also sometimes considered lymph organs?
    the lymph node system and bone marrow
  94. What happens to the large protein molecules that can't be reabsorbed at the venous ends of the capillaries?
    They enter the lymphatic capillaries

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