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The light reactions are located in the
The Calvin Cycle occurs in the
What features do mitochondria share with bacterial cells?
Free ribosomes, DNA, Membranes with phospholipds
What do you think the cytoskeleton is made of?
Proteins, which is made of amino acids
Microfilaments are involved in what in the Cytoskeleton?
- ▪ Changes in cell shape
- ▪ Muscle contraction
- ▪ Cytoplasmic streaming
- ▪ Cell motility (pseudopodia)
- ▪ Cell division (cleavage furrow)
Microtubles are involved in what in the Cytoskeleton?
- Move the chilla and flagella
- Maintain cell shape
- Choromosome Movements
- Organelle Movements
- Anchor Organelles
- Involved in the formation of nuclear lamina
Intercellular Junctions in Plants are
Intercellular Junctions in Animal Cells are...
- • Tight Junctions: Ex. Epithelial Cell
- • Desmosomes: Ex. Epithelial cells, holds your cells together.
- • Gap Junctions: Ex. Heart Muscles, Animal Embryos
Cells are small because
they are limited by the food they can take in
A cell that is actively involved in exchanging a lot of material with their surrooundings wouldbe expected to have a . . .
a large surface are to volume ratio
How is the cell wall similar between Eu and Prokaryotes?
- Cell Shape
- Physical Protection
How is the cell wall different between Eu and Prokaryotes?
- The structual components.
- Eukaryotes: cellulose or chitin
- ◦ Bacteria: Peptidoglycan
- ◦ Archaea: Variety of polysaccharides and proteins
Do cell walls prevent cells from dying in hypertonic solutions?
How do you think immune cells recognize foreign cells?
They read the proteins, carbohydrates and libids that are attached to the membrane
A cells is Gram Positive if...
it has a peptidoglycan layer
Gram Negative bacteria:
- Has an extra layer before the peptidoglycan layer
- Are more pathogenic
Pili and Fimbriae
- Made of proteins.
- Hairlike appendages
- Attach to certain cells, bacteria to each other, exchanging genetic material between bacteria
- Called Sex pilots
- Help move the cell
- Very different between Eu and Prokaryotes
- In Prokaryotes, made of filament and connected to the cell membrane
- In Eukaryotes, made of a cell membrane that is filled with microtubules and is not connected.
What shape is the DNA in Bacteria and Eukaryotes?
Do ribosome fucntion similarly in pro and eukaryotes?
love extream environments
- Live in stumachs of termites and cows
- Use CO2 to oxidize H2, releasing methane
Why are Archaea and Bacteria Fundamentally Different
- Cell wall
- Plasma Membrane
- RNA Polymerases
- not living!!
- DNA surrounded by a protein coat
- Does not have ribosomes or a plasma membrane
- Ia parasite
- Infectious particels
- lack coat protein
- short circular strands of RNA
consists only of protein
Living cells require Energy t/f
- Heat, thermal energy
- Chemical Energy
First law of conservation of energy
Energy cannot be created nor distroyed
Second law of thermodynamics
- During energy transfer/transformation
- Some energy becomes unusable
ATP is used to drive nearly all cellular activities
Movement of molecules against a concentration gradient....
- Sodium (Na+) Potasium(K+) pump
- More Na+ out
- Generates voltage
- 3 out 2 in
The Proton Pump
- Main electrogenic pump
- Protons= H+
- Store Energy for cells
- Electrochemical gradient
Voltages across the plasma membrane are...
- the result of concentration gradients
- used by the cells as an energy source
- referred to asmembrane potential.
Proton pumps, sodium potassium pump, active transport
all require energy
- Energy in
- Absorbs/requires energy
Reactants pushed into transition states
Enzymes + Actiation Energy =
- Enzymes lower the activation energy
- reaction is more likely to occur