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biology biol152 jennings exam two
study cards for jenning's exam 2
The light reactions are located in the
The Calvin Cycle occurs in the
What features do mitochondria share with bacterial cells?
Free ribosomes, DNA, Membranes with phospholipds
What do you think the cytoskeleton is made of?
Proteins, which is made of amino acids
Microfilaments are involved in what in the Cytoskeleton?
▪ Changes in cell shape
▪ Muscle contraction
▪ Cytoplasmic streaming
▪ Cell motility (pseudopodia)
▪ Cell division (cleavage furrow)
Microtubles are involved in what in the Cytoskeleton?
Move the chilla and flagella
Maintain cell shape
Involved in the formation of nuclear lamina
Intercellular Junctions in Plants are
Intercellular Junctions in Animal Cells are...
• Tight Junctions
: Ex. Epithelial Cell
: Ex. Epithelial cells, holds your cells together.
• Gap Junctions
: Ex. Heart Muscles, Animal Embryos
Cells are small because
they are limited by the food they can take in
A cell that is actively involved in exchanging a lot of material with their surrooundings wouldbe expected to have a . . .
a large surface are to volume ratio
How is the cell wall similar between Eu and Prokaryotes?
How is the cell wall different between Eu and Prokaryotes?
The structual components.
: cellulose or chitin
: Variety of polysaccharides and proteins
Do cell walls prevent cells from dying in hypertonic solutions?
How do you think immune cells recognize foreign cells?
They read the proteins, carbohydrates and libids that are attached to the membrane
A cells is Gram Positive if...
it has a peptidoglycan layer
Gram Negative bacteria:
Has an extra layer before the peptidoglycan layer
Are more pathogenic
Pili and Fimbriae
Made of proteins.
Attach to certain cells, bacteria to each other, exchanging genetic material between bacteria
Called Sex pilots
Help move the cell
Very different between Eu and Prokaryotes
In Prokaryotes, made of filament and connected to the cell membrane
In Eukaryotes, made of a cell membrane that is filled with microtubules and is not connected.
What shape is the DNA in Bacteria and Eukaryotes?
"in case of" DNA
Do ribosome fucntion similarly in pro and eukaryotes?
love extream environments
Live in stumachs of termites and cows
Use CO2 to oxidize H2, releasing methane
Why are Archaea and Bacteria Fundamentally Different
DNA surrounded by a protein coat
Does not have ribosomes or a plasma membrane
lack coat protein
short circular strands of RNA
consists only of protein
Living cells require Energy t/f
Heat, thermal energy
First law of conservation of energy
Energy cannot be created nor distroyed
Second law of thermodynamics
During energy transfer/transformation
Some energy becomes unusable
ATP is used to drive nearly all cellular activities
Movement of molecules against a concentration gradient....
Sodium (Na+) Potasium(K+) pump
More Na+ out
3 out 2 in
The Proton Pump
Main electrogenic pump
Store Energy for cells
Voltages across the plasma membrane are...
the result of concentration gradients
used by the cells as an energy source
referred to asmembrane potential.
Proton pumps, sodium potassium pump, active transport
all require energy
Reactants pushed into transition states
Enzymes + Actiation Energy =
Enzymes lower the activation energy
reaction is more likely to occur