Periodontal Pathogens

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  1. define the non-specific plaque hypothesis
    all bacteria are bod and any accumulation of microbes at or below gingival margin causes inflammation
  2. define the specific plaque hypothesis
    specific organisms are etiological agents and microbial composition is different between healthy and disease
  3. which strains of P. gingivalis are seen in healthy patients?
    Type I and V fimA genotypes
  4. Which strains of P. gingivalis are seen in diseased patients?
    Type II and IV
  5. define niche saturation
    colonization of beneficial species to dilute the level of pathogens
  6. give an example of niche saturation
    S. cristatus can inhibit fimA expression
  7. list 3 examples of pathogenic nutrient utilizations
    • 1. veillonella uses lactate made by streptococci
    • 2. campylobacter uses formate made by Selenomonas
    • 3. Porphyromonas uses hemin from blood in sulcus
  8. give an example of pathogenic competitive inhibition
    S. sanguinis produces hydrogen peroxide that inhibits AA
  9. list 3 ways pathogens overcome host defenses
    • 1. desquamation of epithelium: bacteria invade underlying epithelials
    • 2. IgG and IgA proteases
    • 3. leukotoxins attack phagocytes
  10. describe characteristics of Actinobacillus Actinomycetemcomitans (AA)
    • 1. Gm-
    • 2. Capnophilic (requires CO2)
    • 3. star-shaped colonies
  11. list 4 examples of evidence for AA as a pathogen
    • 1. high numbers in LAP
    • 2. elimination = successful therapy
    • 3. Tissue invasive and fibroblast inhibiting factor
    • 4. Inhibits growth of commensals (S. sanguis)
  12. list 3 reasons for evidence against AA as a pathogen
    • 1. not seen in all cases of LAP
    • 2. Seen in healthy subjects
    • 3. AA with 530bp deletion is 23x more likely to be disease-associated
  13. what are the serotypes of AA and how do they affect people?
    • 1. Serotype A: health-associated in finland but disease associated in japan
    • 2. Serotype B: most common in LAP in USA
  14. describe the characteristics of Porphyromonas gingivalis
    • 1. Gm-
    • 2. Anaerobic
    • 3. black pigmented bacteriodes
  15. why is p. gingivalis a pathogen?
    its cysteine proteinases are important in protein degradation and in the maturation of cell surface proteins such as fimA fimbrillin
  16. describe the characteristics of Tannerella forsythia
    • 1. Gm-
    • 2. anaerobic
    • 3. spindle shaped
    • 4. requires NAM
    • 5. cultivated with F nucleatum
    • 6. Serrated S-layer on cell surface mediates adhesion
  17. describe characteristics of Spirochetes
    Gm-, anaerobic, highly motile
  18. Describe characteristics of Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens
    • 1. Gm-
    • 2. anaerobic
    • 3. black pigmented bacteriodes
    • 4. Luxuriant growth in naphthoquinone, a vitamin K derivative from estrogen
    • 5. associated with puberty/pregnancy gingivitis
  19. Describe Fusobacterium nucleatum
    • 1. Gm-, anaerobic
    • 2. early colonizer
    • 3. bridging organism
    • 4. isolated in subgingival health and disease
    • 5. can induce cell death in leukoctyes
  20. how many species of bacteria are present in the oral cavity and what percentage is cultivated?
    700 oral species present with 60-80% cultured
Card Set
Periodontal Pathogens
perio pathogens
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