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list 3 soluble bacterial enzymes
- 1. AA: leukotoxin
- 2. Gm-: LPS endotoxin
- 3. Gm+: Lipoteichoic acid
list 2 immunodominant molecules
- 1. Arg1-protease
- 2. Fimbrillin type I and III
list 3 metabolic waste products from bacteria
- 1. ammonia
- 2. hydrogen sulfide
- 3. indole
list 2 fatty acids that are toxic to host tissues
- 1. butyric acid
- 2. proprionic acid
list 1 chemoattractant peptide
define Defensin and give 2 examples of them
- Defensin: protein that creates pores in cells to allow efflux of essential ions causing cell death
- 1. Alpha: secreted by neutrophils
- 2. Beta: secreted by epithelial cells
List 2 cytokines released by the oral epithelium
- 1. IL-1b to induce inflammation
- 2. IL-8 chemokine
Which TLRs are responsible for Gm- bacteria?
4 and 5
Which TLRs are responsible for flagellated Gm+ bacteria?
2 and 5
what is one problem with TLRs
they do not distinguish between pathogenic and commensal bacteria
list 3 cytokines released by Th1 cells
list 5 cytokines released by Th2 cells
IL-4, 5, 6, 10, 13
Th1 cells contribute to which type of immune response?
cell mediated immune response
Th2 cells contribute to which immune response?
humoral immune response
MHC I recognize what type of antigen?
cytosolic proteins and killing of infected cells
MHC II recognize what type of antigen
extracellular and intravesicular pathogens
how do Cytotoxic T cells relate to periodontitis
not many Tc cells are found in periodontitis suggesting that viruses and invasive bacteria are not major players
What cytokine is the tipping point between stable and progressive periodontitis?
How are B-cells triggered to respond?
they are triggered in response to soluble antigens
Define 2 types of B-cells
- 1. Conventional: produce antibodies against bacteria
- 2. Autoreactive: produce auto-antibodies, levels do not decrease after treatment
Explain the discrepancy between antibody avidity
IgG2 < IgG1, IgG2 found in large numbers of LAP as IgG2 recognizes carbohydrate antigens (LPS of Gm- bacteria!)
What is the balance of Th1/2 cells in chronic periodontal lesions?
Th2 cells outnumber Th1 cells in chronic periodontal lesions
What are the most active secretory cells in advanced periodontal lesions?
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