APII Lymphatic System Part B

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APII Lymphatic System Part B
2010-10-17 15:31:40
PII Lymphatic Part MGCCC

A&PII Lymphatic System -Part B Immunity
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  1. the physiological activity that alerts the body to the entrance of foreign material and destroys or renders them harmless
  2. foreign substances to the body
  3. 6 examples of antigens
    • bacteria
    • viruses
    • fungi
    • various unicellular and multicellular organisms (ameba, parasitic worms)
    • foreign tissues (cancers or organs)
    • materials (pollen)
  4. type of WBC that is associated with resistance to specific diseases
  5. nonviable substance that is associated with resistance to specific diseases
  6. external obstacles to protect the body from antigens
    protective barriers
  7. 5 protective barriers
    • skin
    • tears
    • sweat
    • mucus
    • gastric fluids
  8. 2 antimicrobial substances produced by the immune system
    • interferon
    • complement
  9. What is interferon?
    • Antimicrobial
    • It is a type of protein produced by virus infected host cells which causes uninfected host cells to synthesize a type of protein that inhibits the intracellular replication of viruses.
  10. What is complement?
    • Antimicrobial
    • group of proteins in serum that contribute to resistance and immunity by:

    • activation of inflammation
    • opsonization
    • cytolysis
  11. initiating an inflammatory reaction which causes blood cells to gather at the site of antigenic attack
    activation of inflammation

    (one of the mechanisms of compliment)
  12. coating foreign substances with an adherent material, which causes antigens to be more easily destroyed by other cells

    (a mechanism of compliment)
  13. the activation of a membrane attack complex (MAC) that punches holes in a microbe causing it to rupture

    (a mechanism of compliment)
  14. the ingestion and destruction of microbes or foreign matter by cells called phagocytes
  15. 2 types of phagocytes
    • microphages
    • macrophages
  16. phagocytes which are granulocytes--neutrophils in particular
  17. phagocytes which are monocytes which have enlarged and become more numerous because of infection
  18. 4 mechanisms involved with phagocytosis
    • chemotaxis
    • adherence
    • ingestion
    • digestion
  19. attraction of the phagocytes to the site of infection
  20. attachment of a microbe to the surface of the phagocyte (usually after compliment coats the microbe through opsonization)
  21. before adherence (in phagocytosis) takes place, what substance usually coats a microbe first to facilitate attachment ?
  22. pseudopods extend from the surface of the phagocyte and enclose the mircrobe in a phagocytic vesicle which is drawn into the phagocyte
  23. "false feet" that extend from the surface of the phagocyte and enclose the microbe
  24. During ingestion what is the ingested microbe inclosed within?
    phagocytic vesicle
  25. lysosomes and digestive enzymes kill and break down the microbe
  26. lysosomes
    garbage can of cells
  27. What happens to ingested materials after they have been digested by phagocytes?
    some of the microbe materials are used by the phagocyte, the rest is expelled from the surface as a residual body
  28. expelled product of a phagocyte
    residual body
  29. substance that, when introduced into the body, causes the body to produce antibodies which react with it
  30. structures found on the surface of antigens
    antigenic determinant sites
  31. another name for antigenic determinant site
  32. specific locations on surfaces of antigens that trigger specific antibodies
    antigenic determinant sites (epitopes)
  33. what effect do antigenic determinant sites have upon antibodies
    they trigger specific antibodies
  34. How many epitopes are recognized by the human immune system?
    at least a billion
  35. what is immunogenicity?
    ability to stimulate the formation of specific antibodies
  36. What is reactivity?
    the ability of antibodies to react with specific antigens
  37. epitopes are characterized by....
    immunogenicity and reactivity
  38. protein substances produced by the body to neutralize a specific antigen
  39. what type of organic molecule is an antibody?
  40. What type of glycoproteins are antibodies?
  41. What are antibody globulins called?
    immunoglobulins (Igs)
  42. structure of an immunoglobulin
    4 polypeptide chains joined together by disulphate bond

    • 2 long heavy (H) chains
    • 2 short light (L) chains
  43. what holds the 4 polypeptide chains together
    disulphate bonds
  44. Are the tips of the H and L chains the same for all antibodies?
    no, they are different for each kind of antibody
  45. the tips of the 4 polypeptide chains that make up an antibody are called....
    variable (V) regions
  46. What do the V regions of the antibody chains contain?
    binding sites
  47. region of the antibody peptide chains that is the same in all antibodies for each of the 5 classes of immunoglobulins
    constant (C) region
  48. 2 regions of the antibody polypeptide chains
    • variable (V) region
    • constant (C) region
  49. how many classes of immunoglobulins are there? Name them.

    • IgG
    • IgA
    • IgM
    • IgD
    • IgE
  50. IgG
    • enhances phagocytosis
    • neutralizes toxins
    • protects newborn infants (crosses the placenta)
  51. IgA
    • protects mucosal surfaces
    • found in tears, saliva, and milk
    • decreases during times of stress (which lowers threshold for infection)
  52. IgM
    • causes agglutination and lysis
    • found mainly in blood and lymph
  53. IgD
    stimulates antibody production (tells them to form)
  54. IgE
    involved in allergic reactions
  55. How is the amount of antibody present in serum measured?
    by it's titer
  56. When are titers highest?
    when the immune system is stimulated by it's corresponding antigen
  57. How many types of lymphocytes are there? What are they?
    • 2
    • T cells
    • B cells
  58. lymphocytes originate from...
    hemocytoblasts (stem cells) in the bone marrow
  59. function of T-cells
    aggressively attack the invading antigens by physical contact and the secretion of toxins and enzymes
  60. Why are T cells called T cells?
    T is for thymus where the T cells are activated
  61. what is meant by T cells become activated?
    undergo an "aggressive" change
  62. Describe how T-cells become immunologically aggressive.
    they come in contact with an antigen
  63. When a T cell responds to an antigen it is said to be __________.
  64. Where do sensitized T cells tend to congregate?
    at the site of infection
  65. What does a sensitized T cell do in response to an infection?
    congregates at the site of the infection, then divides to form different types of T cells
  66. Names of 6 subpopulation T cells that sensitized T cells develop into
    • amplifier T cells
    • memory T cells
    • helper T cells
    • suppressor T cells
    • killer T cells
    • delayed hypersensitivity T cells
  67. primary function of amplifier T cells
    increase activity of other T cells
  68. memory T cells
    provide rapid protection against later infections (remember which chemical worked best, not antibody)
  69. another term for helper T cell
    CD4 cells

    CD stands for cluster designation and refers to specific protein markers found in WBCs
  70. primary function of helper T cells
    • signal B cells to produce antibodies
    • secretes interleukin 2 (which initiates the production of killer T cells)
  71. initiates the production of killer T cells
    • interleukin 2
    • (produced by helper T cells)
  72. function of suppressor T cells
    suppress the activities of all T cells after the danger has passed
  73. Another term for killer T cells
    CD8 cells
  74. primary function of killer T cells
    cause direct destruction of the antigens by secretion of chemical substances that result in agglutination and lysis and interfere with virus replication
  75. primary function of delayed hypersensitivity T cells
    important in allergy responses
  76. primary function of B cells
    produce antibodies
  77. where do B cells originate?
    within bone (B) marrow
  78. why are B cells called B cells
    originated in bone marrow (B is for bone)
  79. what is meant by B cell activation
    develop into specialized aggressive cells
  80. Where are B cells primarily found?
    lymphatic tissue (not in the blood like T cells)
  81. In what type of tissue to B cells become sensitized to an antigen?
    lymphatic tissue
  82. Subpopulations that B cells differentiate into
    • Helper T cells
    • plasma cells
  83. When activated by an antigen, the B cells remain in the lymphatic tissue where some differentiate into______________ cells.
    plasma cells
  84. What cells produce antibodies?
    plasma cells formed from B cells
  85. What do plasma cells do?
    produce antibodies
  86. What provides the stimulus for plasma cells to produce antibodies?
    Helper T cells
  87. Functions and actions of memory B cells
    respond rapidly with antibodies if exposed to the same antigen in the future

    (store blue print for antibody)
  88. 2 types of immunity
    • cellular (cell mediated) immunity - T cells
    • humoral (antibody mediated) immunity - B cells
  89. another name for cellular immunity
    cell mediated immunity
  90. type of immunity where the lymphocyte comes in contact with the surface of the antigen and secretes destructive toxins and enzymes causing agglutination and lysis
    cellular immunity
  91. In cellular immunity, the substances available to the lymphocyte to aid in the destruction or neutralization of the antigen
    toxins and enzymes
  92. type of lymphocyte involved in cellular immunity
    T cells
  93. cellular immunity is especially effective against....
    fungi, parasites, cancer cells, and foreign tissue
  94. another term for humoral immunity
    antibody mediated immunity
  95. where circulating antibodies neutralize the invading agent
    humoral immunity
  96. type of lymphocyte involved in humoral immunity
    B cells
  97. Humoral immunity is especially effective against....
    viral and bacterial infections
  98. the ability to recognize and respond to specific antigens if such antigens are reintroduced into the body at some future date
    immunological memory
  99. How long may immunological memory remain?
    decades or a lifetime
  100. How many responses are there to immunological memory? What are they?

    • primary response
    • secondary response
  101. What cells are primarily involved in immunological memory?
    • memory B cells
    • memory T cells
  102. When an antigen is first encountered by the immune system, there is no antibody present and the individual ma become_________ ___________.
    very sick
  103. After the first few days of primary immune response there is a slow rise in antibody ________ and the individual becomes clinically improved due to the increasing presence of _____________.
    • titer
    • antibodies
  104. In primary immune response, after the antigenic threat has been removed the antibody titer _______ ___________.
    gradually declines
  105. What would precipitate the secondary response?
    if the same antigen is encountered again
  106. Why doesn't a person become sick in a secondary response?
    it's so quick and effective the antigens are neutralized before any signs or symptoms of disease become evident
  107. What happens in secondary response?
    If same antigen is encountered again, there is a faster and greater rise in antibody titer, especially with Ig
  108. Immunological memory provides the basis for __________ by___________ against diseases.
    • immunization
    • vaccination
  109. the act or process of becoming immune
  110. vaccination
    Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (the vaccine) to produce immunity to a disease
  111. AIDS stands for....
    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
  112. Another term for the AID virus
    HIV - human immunodeficiency virus
  113. What subpopulation of blood cells are invaded by the AIDS virus?
    helper T (CD4) cells
  114. What does the AIDS do to the helper T cells?
    invades them and gradually kills them off
  115. What happens to the B cells as the T cells are killed in AIDS?
    the message to the B cells for producing antibodies is reduced to the point that there are no circulating antibodies to combat the HIV.
  116. What happens to the AIDS virus when B and T cells are destroyed?
    it is free to multiply at will
  117. what do aids patients usually die from? Why?
    opportunistic diseases

    lack primary immune response to counteract even harmless diseases
  118. well known cancer of blood and lymph
    Hodgkin's disease
  119. Signs and symptoms of Hodgkin's disease
    • lymph nodes swell and are nontender
    • fatigue
    • weight loss
    • pruritis
  120. pruitis
  121. how is Hodgkin's disease usually treated? what is the prognosis?
    • chemotherapy and radiation
    • with treatment prognosis is good
  122. name a few autoimmune diseases
    • rheumatoid arthritis
    • systemic lupus erythematosus
    • Addison's disease
    • Grave's disease
    • MS
    • Guillain-Barr syndrome
  123. What are autoimmune diseases?
    body's immune system develops a sensitivity to normal tissues and produces antibodies antibodies against them
  124. Treatment for autoimmune diseases is generally ______________.
  125. Drug treatment commonly used in treatment of autoimmune diseases
    anti-inflammatories like prednisone