Bureaticratic politics modle of Chiense politics seeks to explain policy outcomes by looking at the interaction of officlas in differnt, and often compelling, government agencies who are mostly motivated by there ortinzation's interst.the Bureaucrat's goal include enhancing their organization's authority, increasing its budget or protecting its turfwhat is important is that individual politica behaviro is dertemed by the indivual's place in the bureaucy.
politics of developing nations;
post-communist or post-socialist politics;
political institutions and processes;
Leadership is obviously very important in Chinese politics. Compare significant leaders and their leadership styles, and designs for reforming China. For instance, Cixi, Li Hongzhang, Sun Yat-sen, Yuan Shikai, Chiang Kai-shek, Mao Zedong,
To change or reform Chinese state and society has never been easy; why they tried, how they tried, and what they tried; why they failed or how they failed?
Ideology is the key to unlock many political issues in China. Pay attention to the transformations of ideologies used by political parties. For instance, Sun’s ideology, Mao’s ideology, compare to Marxism or others?
The state has always been an important player; try to understand the state and its performance during different time periods. For example, the state and its behavior or capability in Late Qing, Republic of China, under Japanese occupation, and under CCP’s leadership…
Mao’s Thought was formed during the process of Chinese Revolution; Chinese Revolution was different from Russian Revolution because it took place mainly in rural China; little of Chinese Revolution had followed Marxist theories or models of revolutions.
“New Democracy” was a very important part of Mao’s Thought about establishing Communist regime in China. In politics, CCP led other groups; in economy, it had mixed ownerships with limited market economy and to be replaced by planned economy; in social life, the state gradually dominated everything and every organization. It was a gentler step to a communist state; the preparation for the party-state, totalitarian regime.
Land Reform of early 1950s was very violent and radical, why? What was the purpose of doing so? What kind of land ownership did Chinese peasants work with after the Reform?
“Lean to one side” was the dominant international strategy applied by Mao’s administration until late 1960s. Why leaned to the Soviet side? Why not the U.S. side? Or not to take a side at all?
Five year plans were adopted among most communist countries and also in India for a long time. Particularly in China, Five-year plans were to industrial China a short period of time by concentrating on heavy industry. When did the First Five-year Plan started? Who benefited from it; who did not? What was the cost of developing heavy industry first?
Urban life v.s. rural life in 1950s-1960s China. The urban registry system was adopted to solve the food shortage issue in urban China; workers must have sufficient food and housing supplies to maintain their living standards. To limit rural population rushing into the cities and towns, rural farmers had to stay in their villages. It actually prevented Chinese urbanization progress for decades.
Another similar issue would be heavy industry v.s. light industry. Too much concentration on the heavy industrial development would lower people’s living standards, meaning little investment on food, agriculture, education and other daily life development. However, if light industry goes first, it would slow down the entire industrialization; because Chinese economy was not sufficient to support all types of industrial development at the same time.