Creates professionals that are willing to question accepted school practices and will work to bring about change benefiting both themselves and students
Community of learners
Teachers and students individually and collectively help one another grow and become more responsible community members
Apprenticeship of observation
Results of an observation, including classroom routines, styles of teaching content, ways of interacting with students, and other facets of what it means to teach
The content drives instruction
The students’ needs drive instruction
Subject area knowledge, skills, dispositions, and the ability to transform that knowledge into meaningful instruction.
Subject area knowledge
Essential for core knowledge, the knowledge that a teacher has about their specific subject.
Head of the board of education in Mass, enabled Lowell Mason
First music teacher, 1838
Education reformer, believed in whole child education
Pestalozzian principles of education
Training the head, hand and heart
System in which do is the tonal center in all major keys and la is tonal center in minor keys
The song method
Hear the notes, then sing them, then read them
Music appreciation movement
Music suffered because literacy declined
First music training school, 1922
Research techniques and widespread dissemination of results
Introduced musical performances of high quality into the classroom
Woods Hole conference
Generated curriculum studies in diversity of academic and artistic subject areas
The Young Composer’s project
Composers went into the classrooms as music teachers, resulted in CMP
Contemporary Music Project for creativity in music education
Established through the young composer’s project, encouraged educators to utilize performance, analysis, and composition in music activities.
The Yale Seminar
1963, followed woods hole conference, problems facing contemporary music education, music materials and music performance, resulted in Juilliard Repertory project
Julliard Repertory project
Research and compile high quality music for students
The Manhattanville Music Curriculum program
1965, Ronald Thomas, developed curriculum development for grades 3-12 called synthesis and early childhood called interaction.
Comprehensive curriculum for grades 3-12
Early childhood curriculum in music
Apply to all types of music, including form, melody, timbre, texture, dynamics, harmony, rhythm
Apply only to music of a specific historical period or specific area of the world
The Tanglewood Symposium
1967, evaluated the role of music in American society and in education and concluded that education must have as major goals the art of living, building personal identity, and nurturing of creativity
The Goals and Objectives project
Evaluated present activities and establish additional viable programs in music education
The National Standards for Arts Education
Recommended that every student have access to arts education, identify specific skills and knowledge for students
Goals 2000: Educate America Act
A Nation at Risk
The Ann Arbor Symposium
Allowed educators to interact with each other and with psychologists in an attempt to bring about a greater understanding of how children learn when they learn music
The Mountain Lake Colloquium
Focuses specifically on issues and concerns of topics related to teaching and learning of music
The Getty Education Institute for the Arts
What teens really think about their schools
79% long for higher standards, 78% a teacher that tries to make it fun helps learning, 24% think their teachers do that now
Sociocultural characteristics of adolescents
Given meanings by the larger society and mainstream American culture in which they exist, including gender, race, ethnicity, culture, socioeconomic status.
Women’s psychology and girls’ development
The crossroads between girls and women is marked by a series of disconnections or dissociations which leave girls psychologically at risk and involved in a relational struggle.
How America’s schools cheat girls
Boys also are forced to go underground by societal pressures to repress emotions, compete for and win honors and attention, and even use violence and force to solve problems.
How schools shortchange girls
Girls choose math/science careers in disproportionately low numbers.
A group that shares a common ancestry, culture, history, tradition, and sense of peoplehood.
The play of ethnicity in school and community
Students formed and maintained relationships based on actions, not color.
The ever-changing values, traditions, social and political relationships, and worldview created and shared by a group of people bound together by a combination of factors.
Social groups and socioeconomic status
A microcosmic society of students formed as they live and work within the institution of school.
An array f student characteristics that qualify individual students to receive special services.
The unique ways whereby an individual gathers and processes information and are the means by which an individual prefers to learn.
Means of classifying students according to their intelligence, Gardner
Managing student behavior in effective, respectful, and trustful ways.
The ways in which a teacher organizes the classroom environment so that he or she and the students can work together cooperatively on worthwhile academic activities.
Things that could happen at different times
Things happening at the same time
Things that happen at a rapid pace
Unexpected things in class
How your class is viewed from a public perspective
What happens how compared to the past
The influence of student characteristics on negotiations
Personal theories for teaching
Result of your K-12 experiences on how to teach
Effective classroom managers
Know how to use every moment of classroom time for learning activities
Non-instructional and instructional activities
Spend as little time as possible on non-instructional activities.
An occasion when students are formally engaged in an instructional activity for the purpose of acquiring or applying knowledge or skills.
Let students know when they should perform certain tasks an dhow learning experiences are structured.
Teacher effectiveness training
Open communication, dewey’s scientific method, build self-confidence to make decisions
How to belong, teacher determines motivation of students through observation or questions
Teachers focus students attention on undesirable behavior, behavior contract, teacher determines parameters of acceptable behavior
Student behavior can be modified to acceptable standards, teachers use reinforcement, contingency contracting
Establish a classroom environment that provides an optimal learning environment, verbally limit student misbehavior
Use effective body language, employ effective incentive systems, provide personal help efficiently.
Physically moving near to a student
Helping a student identify a problem behavior that can be defined, assisting the student in devising a means for charting this behavior, and reinforcing the student’s appropriate use of self-management
An attempt to provide early adolescents with models of schooling that meet their developmental needs.
Factory model of schooling
Obedience and control
Body of content that is usually contained in an official framework
Believe that intended curriculum will convey core knowledge and values to students
What is taught to students in classrooms and schools
The transformation of official knowledge into classroom lessons
Ideas that are not part of the intended curriculum, but are implicitly taught by teachers
Local decision making and local values
Powerful part of the taught curriculum
What students actually learn in school
Need to develop and implement curricula that are culturally relevant
Past traditions of the school curriculum
Cuban’s definition of curriculum
Formal purposes of schooling, official content, buried assumptions about knowledge, and the organization and relationships within classrooms, schools, and districts
National standards in content areas
Consortium of National Arts Education Associations
National, state, and local curriculum leaders
Standards, high-stakes testing,
Two most significant levels of curriculum development
The school and the classroom
Factors that influence the nature of the classroom curriculum
Textbooks, characteristics of students and the community, and developmental age of students
Comprehensive Musicianship Program
Elements of music
Analyzing compositional devices and elements of music