Acid/Base

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Author:
giddyupp
ID:
42362
Filename:
Acid/Base
Updated:
2011-01-13 13:06:23
Tags:
Acid Base PHPR521
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Acid/Base
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  1. What is the normal level of sodium?
    136-145 mEq/L
  2. What is the normal level of potassium?
    3.5-5.0 mEq/L
  3. What is the normal level of chloride?
    96-106 mEq/L
  4. What is the normal level of pCO2?
    35-45 mmHg
  5. What is the normal level of HCO3?
    22-27 mEq/L
  6. What is the normal level of TCO2?
    23-28 mEq/L
  7. What is the normal level of PO2?
    93-100 mmHg
  8. What is metabolic alkalosis?
    high HCO3-
  9. What is metabolic acidosis?
    low HCO3-
  10. What is respiratory alkalosis?
    low pCO2
  11. What is respiratory acidosis?
    high pCO2
  12. How does the body compensate for metabolic alkalosis?
    hypoventilation - usually quite ineffective (body wants to breathe!!)
  13. How does the body compensate for respiratory alkalosis?
    kidneys excrete more HCO3-
  14. How does the body compensate for respiratory acidosis?
    kidneys retain HCO3-
  15. How does the body compensate for metabolic acidosis?
    hyperventilation
  16. What is measured to determine the status of anion gap?
    • Sodium - 140
    • Chloride - 104
    • HCO3- - 24
  17. What is a normal anion gap?
    gap of 12 +/- 4
  18. What is the only situation anion gap is useful for evaluating?
    • metabolic acidosis:
    • gain of HCL or loss of HCO3- = normal gap
    • gain of exogenous acid = increased gap
  19. What are the causes of anion gap acidosis?
    • Methanol
    • Uremia
    • Lactate
    • Ethylene glycol
    • Paraldehyde
    • Aspirin
    • Ketoacidosis
  20. What are the causes of non-anion gap acidosis?
    • TPN
    • renal tubular acidosis
    • diarrhea (pancreas needs to keep producing HCO3- to replace what is lost in order to keep the pH normal in the intestines. Eventually HCO3- levels will go down = metabolic acidosis)
  21. What is the normal level of magnesium?
    1.7-2.1 mmol/L
  22. What is the normal level of calcium?
    8.5-10.5 mmol/L
  23. Which electrolytes are intracellular?
    K+, Mg
  24. What is the equation for calculating serum osmolality?
    2[Na] + (Gluc/28) + (BUN/2.8)
  25. What is the normal range for osmolality?
    275-290 mOsm/kg

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