Music History Test 2

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Music History Test 2
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Music History Test 2
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  1. Franz Josef Haydn
    • - Born in Rohrau , Austria (now in Hungary )
    • - Humble family
    • - Father = wheelright, amateur harpist
    • - Mother = cook & market inspector
    • - FJH studied violin with cousin
    • - 1740, scholarship at St. Stephen’s School, Vienna

    boy soprano in Imperial Choir until voice changed, then earned meager living as accompanist

    • - lived in an attic
    • - met METASTASIO (Europe’s most popular librettist of the century), mentor to FJH

    FJH began composing for keyboard & voice
  2. Haydn's Career as a Court Musician
    • - 1758: Kapellmeister for his first patron, count Ferdinand Morzin (Vienna & Bohemia)
    • - Kapellmeister – in charge of all music in a court
    • - FJH’s 1st symphonies written for Morzin

    1761, PRINCE PAUL ANTON ESTERHAZY hears FJH’s music, hires FJH away from Morzin

    - Esterhazy aristocrats become lifelong patrons for FJH

    FJH hired as vice Kapellmeister, but really in charge (head K. was elderly and almost to retirement age

    • - CONTRACT PROVISIONS specify duties
    • - FJH essentially = servant
  3. Haydn's Career at Esterhaza
    - 1762, Paul Anton dies, his successor NICHOLAS, “The Magnificent,” builds Esterhaza


    Huge palatial estate, modeled on Versailles with military barracks, chapel, 2 theaters (opera, marionettes), music rooms (=recital halls)


    • - Esterhaza was isolated, intended for prince’s hunting
    • - But under FJH’s direction, it became a cultural center rivaling Vienna

    FJH claimed he “had no choice but to become original” because he was isolated
  4. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
    • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (WAM)
    • (1756-1791)

    • -b. Salzburg, then Bavaria = Germany
    • WAM's, Leopold, was a violinist and composer; his patron was an archbishop; pub. treatise on
    • violin playing, 1756
    • -Leopold taught WAM's sister Maria Anna ("Nannerl"), 4 years older than WAM
    • -both were greatest prodigies
  5. Mozart as a Prodigy
    • Mozart's Career as a Prodigy
    • -Age 4, photographic memory
    • -Age 5, composes for clavier; Leopold sacrifices career to promote his children
    • -Age 6, plays violin and organ for Bavarian elector, then Austrian Emperor (Munich)
    • -Age 7, begins 3 1/2 year tour of Europe's capitals, played for Marie Antoinette, J.C. Bach,
    • and King George
    • -12 thru 14, composes in serious genre (back in Salzburg)
    • -Age 14, WAM tours Italy
    • WAM 'steals' Allegri's Miserere from Pope, tested by Padre Martini
    • conducts own opera in Milan
    • -Goal of all tours (obtain prestigious court appointment) unattained
    • -Age 17, FJH's music motivates WAM to work harder
    • -Age 22, visits Paris, mother dies there, but WAM still composes many works, including;
  6. Ludwig van Beethoven
    • Arguably Western music’s most influential composer, during and after lifetime
    • Life and music customarily divided into 3 periods

    • Early (1770-1802)
    • Middle (1802-1815)
    • Late (1815-1827)

    • born in Bonn, Germany
    • Dutch descent; name = Louis of the Beet Garden
    • Grandfather and father were choral musicians at court of Elector Franz Maximilian (early patron)
    • LvB 1st studied with father
    • then studied with Christian Gottlieb Neefe, university professor, who introduced LvB to music of JS Bach, encouraged improvising
    • Prodigy at age 8
    • first public performance was at age 8 (father lied and told people he was 6)
    • age 12: published first composition (variations), became a court employee
    • age 17: plays for WAM in Vienna
    • age 20: FJH invites LvB to Vienna
    • 1792: LvB moves to Vienna to “receive Mozart’s spirit through Haydn’s hands” (Count Waldstein)
    • FJH probably preocuupied
    • LvB studied ‘secretly” with others until 1795
    • LvB, unlike WAM, had letters of introduction to Viennese aristocrats, who supported him with $$, essential services



    Lvb’s early-period music divides into two parts

    • 1: Bonn and 1st Vienna comps. = WoO (Werke ohne Opuszahl [Works withough Opus no.])
    • 2: Works LvB thought worthy of Op. nos
  7. Bonn
    • Birthplace of Beethoven
    • Bonn and 1st Vienna comps. = WoO (Werke ohne Opuszahl [Works withough Opus no.])
  8. Heiligenstadt
    • LvB became aware of his growing deafness (1798), confided in friends, sought treatment
    • - 1802: following doctor’s advice, LvB spent time in Heiligenstadt, a small, quiet town north of Vienna

    • HEILIGENSTADT TESTAMENT (p. 455)
    • LvB’s will in form of letter to his brothers
    • Acknoledged severe deafness
    • Had considered sucicide
    • But “his art” held him back
  9. London
    • Haydn makes 2 trips there
    • 1790 Prince Nicholas (“The Magnificent”) dies; Successor, Prince Anton, not musically inclined
    • Disbands Esterhazy Orhcestra

    • FJH Pensioned, accepts commissions, lives in Vienna
    • Johann Peter Solomon

    • German violinist and impresario (agent)
    • living in London since 1781
    • promises FJH money and fame if he will visit London
    • FJH makes 2 trips (1791 and 1794)

    1974, while FJH in London, Prince Anton dies, Successor, Nicholas II

    • persuades FJH to return to service
    • but FJH now dictates terms

    FJH agrees to write 1 mass per year for Princess Maria’s name day

    • FJH’s interests in sacred choral music awakened in London, after he heard Handel’s oratorios
    • Oratorio = genre for chorus, orchestra, vocal soloists, (organ if available)

    biblical story, operatic techniques



    FJH completed 2 oratorios in last decade of his life

    FJH writes 12 London Symphonies, 6 per trip, nos. 93-104

    • large orchestra, 80+, brasses, timpani, and clarinets
    • FJH and JPS share conducting duties
  10. Paris
    1785-6, FJH wrote 6 “Paris” symphonies for the Lage Olympique (Olympic Lodge) = freemasons who ran public concert series
  11. Rohrau
    birthplace of Haydn, in Austria
  12. Salzburg
    • birthplace of Mozart
    • where he created Sturm und Drang style
    • composed in serious style from ages 12 to 14
  13. St. Stephen’s School
    • 1740, Haydn wins scholarship there
    • in Vienna
  14. Vienna
    think: Vienna vs. Esterhaza
  15. Concerto
    a composition for an orchestra andone or more soloists. The classical concerto usually consistedof several movements, and often a cadenza

    Classical Concerto: 1st Movement

    • 1st movements of classical concertos use special variant of sonata form
    • DOUBLE EXPOSITION FORM
    • 2 statements of exposition, but no repeat sign; 1st for orchestra alone, 2nd solist and orch. interact

    • 1st expo - Theme 1 : trans : Theme 2 : CT or A; NO modulation
    • 2nd expo - Theme 1 : trans : Theme 2 : CT or A; DOES modulate




    • 1st expo. (or other long passage for orchestra alone) called ritornello, as in old Baroque concerto
    • in 2nd expo, dvpt, recap, & coda, orch & soloist interact in normal sonata form, except near end:
    • cadenza = passage for soloist alone

    • in 18th C. usually improvised
    • begins on fermata at I6/4 chord
    • ends with trill, cue for orchestra to re-enter
  16. Divertimento
    light, outdoor, background music

    • at least 5 mvmts, 2 of them dance (fast-dance-slow-dance-fast)
    • 1st violin dominates
  17. dramma giocoso
    • "a funny comdey"
    • ex. Mozart's Don Giovanni
  18. oratorio
    • genre for chorus, orchestra, vocal soloists, (organ if available)
    • biblical story, operatic techniques

    FJH’s interests in sacred choral music awakened in London, after he heard Handel’s oratorios
  19. piano trio
    • piano, cello, violin
    • ex. Beethoven's Piano Trio in Eb major, Op. 1, no. 1
  20. requiem mass
    • In 1791, WAM recieved a commission to write a Requiem mass by Count Walsegg-Stuppach, who had planned to claim he had written it himself
    • WAM grew ill and died before he completed it
    • His pupil, Franz Xaver Sussmayr, finished it.

    T: Requiem, K. 626

    mass for repose of the soul of the dead
  21. Singspiel
    the German genre features:

    • German language
    • spoken dialogue instead of recitative
    • comic plot, modest magical effects
    • exotic or fairy-tale setting
    • simple musical forms
  22. string quartet
    • 2 violins
    • 1 viola
    • 1 cello
  23. symphony
    an elaborate instrumental composition in three or more movements, similar in form to a sonata but written foran orchestra and usually of far grander proportions andmore varied elements.
  24. Theme and Variations
    ex. Beethoven's Diabelli Variations
  25. T: Piano Concerto No. 5 in E-flat major, Op. 73 (“Emperor”)
    • Name = in 1809, Emperor’s family fled from Napoleon’s invading army. When they returned, LvB welcomed the Emperor’s son, Archduke Rudolf (his patron), by playing the concerto for him privately; LvB also dedicated it to AR. 1st public performance in Vienna, on Emperor’s birthday, played by Carl Czerny, composer of many etudes, later teacher of Liszt. Many modern pianists have traced themselves back to LvB
    • G: Piano Concerto
    • C: LvB
    • N: German
    • D: 1809, Middle
    • SF: LvB establishes new relationship between piano and orchestra with:

    • opening, improvisatory fantasia, which returns in recap
    • normal orchestra exposition, except theme 2 begins in minor
    • piano re-enters (chromatic scales) before orchestra resolves
    • Piano preserves fantasia quality in “strict” sections
    • Piano plays theme 2 in b minor (enharmonic b9)
  26. T: Piano Concerto No. 23 in A Major, K. 488
    • G: concerto
    • C: WAM
    • N: German
    • D: 1786,
    • * Vienna Years
    • Significant Features:

    • DOUBLE EXPOSITION FORM
    • rich woodwind writing as in WAM symphonies
    • Alberti bass, common classical keyboard figuaration
    • chordal patterns sustain hamonies, support melody
    • named for Domenico Alberti, among first to develop this texture
  27. T: Diabelli Variations
    • G: Theme and Variations
    • C: LvB
    • N: German
    • D: 1828, Late
    • SF: uses trivial waltz by Anton Diabelli, who asked many composers to write 1 variation each on it; LvB initially refused, calling waltz a Schusterfleck (hodgepodge)
  28. T: Don Giovanni
    • G: dramma giocoso (a funny comedy)
    • C: WAM
    • N: German
    • D: 1786
    • * Vienna years
    • Significant Features:

    WAM’s music differentiates characters, each has his own style

    - Leporello (servant) - basso buffo (remains in this style), patter style (rondo-like aria)

    • Donna Anna (aristocratic soprano) - opera seria style (lots of drama and embelishments) remains in this style
    • Don Giovanni (baritone, scoundrel, master) adapts to circumstances, musical style changes

    - Commendatore (Anna’s father, bass) style is heavier, more sustained

    • All four characters interact in an Ensemble: a section of an opera involving multiple characters, each reacting to situation
    • Continuity: seamless movement between sections
  29. T: Die Zauberflote (The Magic Flute)
    • G: Singspiel
    • C: WAM
    • N: German
    • D: 1791
    • * Vienna years
    • Significant Features:

    • Libretto by Emmanuel Schikaneder, actor, owned small suburban theater, which TMF saved from $$ problems;
    • ES and WAM belonged to same Masonic Lodge, so TMF includes symbols of Freemasonry
    • upper classes are enlightened, lower classes are simple, comic;
    • ex. Papageno: bird catcher, who merely wants to find a wife like himself; dressed up like a bird in order to catch them
  30. Piano Trio in Eb major, Op. 1, no. 1 (piano, cello, violin)
    • C: LvB
    • N: German
    • G: piano trio
    • D: 1793-4
    • * Early Period
    • Significant Features:

    instruments treated more equally than in earlier piano trios

    LvB implied that the genre was worthy of concert rather than domestic performance

    4 movements (earlier piano trios had only 2 or 3)

    LvB implied genre equaled symphony or quartet

    3rd movement not minuet and trio, but SCHERZO (see FJH Op.33), became LvB’s trademark
  31. T: Requiem in D minor, K. 626
    • G: Requiem mass
    • C: WAM
    • N: German
    • P: 1791,
    • * Vienna years
    • Significant Features:

    • Vivid contrasts of entire score exemplified in the “Confutatis” [Confounded], part of Dies irae [apocalyptic Day of Reckoning];
    • Confounded = minor, low, melodic tritones;
    • Blessed = moajor, higher range, diatonic
  32. T: Sonata No. 52 in Eb major, H. XVI:52
    • G: Sonata
    • C: FJH
    • N: Austrian
    • D: pub. 1800
    • * post-Esterhazy years
    • Significant Features:

    • exploits dynamics of forte piano
    • 1st mvmt. is monothematic
  33. T: Sonata no.8 in C minor, Op. 13 (PathÄ—tique)
    • Publisher’s subtitle refers to SymPATHy of compassion, strongly felt emotions, especially pity, grief
    • G: sonata
    • C: LvB
    • N: G
    • P: Early, 1798
    • Significant Features:
    • - 1st mvmt. begins with slow introduction, unusual in sonata (0 in WAM or FJH)
    • - fragmented, sudden contrasts, improvisatory, big ranges, dynamics

    Ensuing sonata form is mostly regular, but...

    • slow intro returns twice, begins dvpt. & coda
    • key of T2 is unstable, unusual (see score)

    Contrasts between slow intro & allegro = Suffering vs. resistance to it or triumph over it
  34. T: String Quartet in Eb Major, Op.33, no. 2 (“Joke”)
    • G: string quartet
    • C: FJH
    • N: Austrian
    • D: 1779

    middle Esterhazy years

    Significant Features:

    • Finale in sonata-rondo form (new for FHJ sting quartets): ABACA (I-IV-I-I-I)
    • rondo theme (refrain) is in ? form
    • episodes not new themes, but instead develop rondo theme (sonata-rondo)
    • joke = pauses, play on antecedent-consequent convention (ends with atecedent)
  35. T: String Quartet in C Major, Op.76, no.3
    • G: string quartet
    • C: FJH
    • N: Austrian
    • D: 1797

    Post Esterhazy years

    Significant Features:

    • 2nd mvmt = set of variations on tune that FJH composed to honor Emperor Franz II
    • tune later used as protestant hymn, national anthem of Austria, then Germany
    • each instrument takes turns playing melody
  36. T: String Quartet in F Major, Op.18, no. 1
    • G: String Quartet
    • C: LvB
    • N: G
    • P: 1800 *early
    • Significant Features:

    • follows sonatat cycly, but not minuet and trio, is instread scherzo and trio
    • form of the scherzo is likewise traditional: rounded binary
    • but second part is greatly expanded; move to Ab , long cadential extension
    • Trio is likewise in rounded binary form, but

    • second part includes music that sounds developmental
    • Db balances Ab (third below and above tonic)
  37. T: String Quartet in C-sharp minor, Op. 131
    • G: String Quartet
    • C: LvB
    • N: G
    • D: 1826, Late
    • SF: 7 movements of extreme contrast; 1st movement = fugue (subject stated by each instrument in turn); Fugues alternate btw expositions and episodes;
  38. ***T: Symphony No. 6 in D major (“Le matin” = “Morning”) *knowing name is good enough
    • Perhaps named by Paul Anton because slow introduction evokes sunrise (how?)
    • C: FJH
    • N: Austrian
    • G: Symphony
    • D: 1761
    • *Early Esterhazy Years (* = extra credit on exam 2)
    • Significant Features:

    • slow introduction+sonata form (although recapitulation omits much of theme 2)
    • uses concertante instruments; as in concerto, more soloistic than normal in symphony
  39. T: Symphony No. 45 in F# minor (“Farewell”)
    • C: FJH
    • N: Austrian
    • G: Symphony
    • D: 1772 Early Esterhazy Years*
    • Significant Features:
    • - 1st movement = Strum und Drang Style

    4th movement illustrates FJH’s famous wit: parts drop out, musicians leave (hint to Prince: time to leave Esterhaza, return to Vienna for winter)
  40. T: Symphony No. 92 in G major, “Oxford”
    • G: Symphony
    • C: FJH
    • N: Austrian
    • D: 1788
    • *Middle Esterhazy Years
    • 2nd movement : see handout on SONATA CYCLE
    • Significant Feaures:

    • form = ABA’ + Coda: A in D Major (V of symphony as a whole), lyrical; B in D minor (parallel minor) w/ repeated notes & sudden dynamics; A’ = varied and shortened
    • Rich orchestration
    • How does ending reflect FJH’s famous wit?
  41. T: Symphony No. 104 in D Major (“London”)
    • G: Symphony
    • C: FJH
    • N: Austrian
    • D: 1795
    • * Post Esterhazy years
    • Significant Features:

    Finale’s sonata form is monothematic (one theme)

    based on one theme which is presented in tonic as theme 1 and in dominant as theme 2

    • Imitation of bagpipe with pedal point “fiddling”
    • long dramatic coda
  42. T: Symphony no. 25 in G minor, K. 183 ("Little")
    • G: Symphony
    • C: WAM
    • N: German
    • D:1783, Salzburg Years
    • Significant Features:
    • - Sturm und Drang style (Salzburg, 1783)
  43. T: Symphony No. 41 in C Major “Jupiter”
    • G: Symphony
    • C: WAM
    • N: German
    • D:
    • “festive” symphony with trumpets, timpani
    • named by J.P. Salomon (stately; large scale, like planet)
    • Sonata form, but numerous themes
    • contrapuntal tour de force
    • Development: inversion, retrograde, stretto
    • Coda: quintuple invertible counterpoint, all 5 themes combined, each acts as bass
    • WAM exposed to Bach’s music in Vienna by Gottfried von Switen, librettis, The Creation
  44. T: Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major, Op. 55 (Eroica = Heroic)
    • G: Symphony
    • C: LvB
    • N: German
    • P: 1802-5, Middle Hero’s identity revealed on title page of LvB’s autograph score of the symphony; Deleted: Grand Symphony entitled Bonaparte; Correction: Written about Bonaparte
    • Bonaparte originally had many admirers:

    • he had reunified France after Revolution
    • he planned to spread French democracy throughout Europe
    • but in 1804, Napoleon declared himself emperor (hereditary title)

    • dismayed, LvB supposedly destroyed title page
    • published dedication: “Heroic Symphony in memory of a great man”



    - “Eroica” still follows sonata cycle, but is longer than any earlier symphony

    • Each mvmt. has “extramusical associations” i.e. refers to nonmusical subject (heroism)
    • 1st mvmt. = huge sonata form, likened to military battle (see handout)
    • 2nd mvmt. = French military funeral march (memory...)
    • 3rd mvmt. scherzo thought to celebrate herp’s achievements
    • 4th mvmt. variations based on theme from LvB’s ballet, The Creatures of Prometheus in Greek mythology, Prometheus stole fire as a gift for mankind
    • just as Napoleon originally planned to bring democracy to Europe
  45. T: Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125 (“choral”)
    • G: Symphony
    • C: LvB
    • N: German
    • D: Late 1812-1824
    • Represents:

    • end of classical symphonic tradition
    • culmination of LvB’s symphonic achievements
    • major influence on new romantic tradition

    • SF: 1st mvmt begins with “nebulous haze” tremolos motives emerge gradually, then coalesce in big tutti statement (influenced Bruckner); 4th mvmt includes chorus and vocal soloists
    • Uses CYCLICAL FORM

    • = when thematic material of one mvmt is restated (“recycled”) in other mvmts
    • After “fright fanfare” themes from earlier mvmnts alternate with inst. recit
    • Events duplicated when voices enter = resemblance to double expo. form
    • Cyclical form important for nearly all romantic composers
  46. T: The Creation
    • G: oratorio
    • C: FJH
    • N: Austrian
    • D: 1798
    • * post-esterhazy
    • Significant Features:
    • slow overture = The Representation of Chaos; very chromatic, dissonance resolved irrecularly, recitative for Raphael and chorus (Genesis): In the beginning...And there was lighy, first score published with bilingual libretto
    • -------------------
  47. T: Variations on 'Ah, vous dirai-je maman' [Ah, I told you, mother]
    • k. 265 (300e) k= Ludwig Kochel
    • cataloagued WAM's works chronologically
    • G: Theme & Variations
    • C: WAM
    • N: German
    • D: 1778, Salzburg Years
    • SF: based on "familiar french folk tune"
  48. Alberti bass
    • Alberti bass, common classical keyboard figuaration
    • chordal patterns sustain hamonies, support melody
    • named for Domenico Alberti, among first to develop this texture
  49. baryton
    • FJH never a great virtuoso, but competent boy soprano, keyboardist, violinist
    • also learned to play BARYTON

    • prince Nicholas’s favorite instrument
    • gamba-like, frets, more stings
    • some plucked with thumb, pick
  50. bilingual libretto
    First score of Haydn's oratorio "The Creation" was published with bilingual libretto
  51. cadenza
    passage for soloist alone

    • in 18th C. usually improvised
    • begins on fermata at I6/4 chord
    • ends with trill, cue for orchestra to re-enter
  52. concertante instruments
    • as in concerto, more soloistic than normal in symphony
    • characteristic of Haydn's Symphony No. 6 in D major (“Le matin” = “Morning”)
  53. ensemble
    • a section of an opera involving multiple characters, each reacting to situation
    • characteristic of Don Giovanni by Mozart
  54. extra-musical associations
    • refers to nonmusical subject (heroism)
    • characteristic of Beethoven's Eroica symphony
  55. freemasons
    Lage Olympique (Olympic Lodge) = freemasons who ran public concert series
  56. Heiligenstadt Testament
    • LvB’s will in form of letter to his brothers
    • Acknoledged severe deafness
    • Had considered sucicide
    • But “his art” held him back
  57. Kappelmeister
    • in charge of all music in a court
    • Haydn was kappelmeister for his first patron Ferdinand Morzin in Vienna
  58. monothematic
    • one theme
    • Finale’s sonata form is monothematic (one theme) [Haydn's Symphony No. 104 in D Major (“London”)]
    • first mvmvt of Haydn's Sonata No. 52 in Eb major, H. XVI:52
    • Beethoven's String Quartet in C# minor: 2nd mvmt = very simple sonata form that uses one theme, first in tonic, (I/i), then in secondary key (V/III or v) = monothematic
  59. representation of chaos
    • characteristic of Haydn's oratorio "The Creation"
    • slow overture = The Representation of Chaos; very chromatic, dissonance resolved irrecularly, recitative for Raphael and chorus (Genesis): In the beginning...And there was lighy, first score published with bilingual libretto
  60. scherzo
    see pieces containing scherzo
  61. Schusterfleck
    Beethoven's Diabelli Variations uses trivial waltz by Anton Diabelli, who asked many composers to write 1 variation each on it; LvB initially refused, calling waltz a Schusterfleck (hodgepodge)
  62. Sturm und Drang
    • Storm and Stress, an emotional agitated style common in contemporaneous literature
    • Name derived from later play by Maximjlian Klinger (1776)
    • Characteristics of Sturm und Drang:

    minor key, unison themes, stark accompaniment, repeated notes, syncopation, abrupt pauses, formal oddities

    • Haydn's Symphony No. 45 in F# minor (“Farewell”)
    • Mozart's Symphony no. 25 in G minor, K. 183 ("Little")
  63. WoO
    • first division of Beethoven's early period
    • 1. Bonn and 1st Vienna comps. = WoO (Werke ohne Opuszahl [Works withough Opus no.])
    • 2: Works LvB thought worthy of Op. nos
  64. Anthony Hoboken
    • Haydn wrote 60+ keyboard sonatas in carious styles
    • H. nos. for Hoboken catalog, by genre
  65. Anton Diabelli
    asked many composers to write 1 variation each on it; LvB initially refused, calling waltz a Schusterfleck (hodgepodge)
  66. Archbishop Schrattenbach
    1772: WAM in Italy, his patron, Archbishop Sigismond von Schrattenbach dies

    • S. had tolerated WMA’s touring
    • thought famous employee reflected well on his court
    • replaced by Archbishop Hieronymous Colleredo did not share S’s attitude
    • C. simply wanted dutiful employee
    • WAM rebelled, was late, absent, uncooperative...
    • in 1781, after long conflict, WAM left H’s court, moved to Vienna to earn living by

    receiving commissions, giving concerts, teaching
  67. Archduke Rudolf
    • Piano Concerto No. 5 in E-flat major, Op. 73 (“Emperor”)
    • Name = in 1809, Emperor’s family fled from Napoleon’s invading army. When they returned, LvB welcomed the Emperor’s son, Archduke Rudolf (his patron), by playing the concerto for him privately; LvB also dedicated it to AR. 1st public performance in Vienna, on Emperor’s birthday, played by Carl Czerny, composer of many etudes, later teacher of Liszt. Many modern pianists have traced themselves back to LvB
  68. Carl Josef von Furnberg
    Haydn credited with 1st string quartets ever written

    • 1957-9: FJH invited to country estate of Carl Josef von Furnberg, wealthy patron
    • FJH wrote pieces for 4 string players

    CJvF, FJH, a music theorist, and a priest

    • later published in groups; Op.1 and Op.2
    • not standard Sonata Cycle yet
    • Divertimento: light, outdoor, background music

    • at least 5 mvmts, 2 of them dance (fast-dance-slow-dance-fast)
    • 1st violin dominates
  69. Carl Czerny
    • Piano Concerto No. 5 in E-flat major, Op. 73 (“Emperor”)
    • Name = in 1809, Emperor’s family fled from Napoleon’s invading army. When they returned, LvB welcomed the Emperor’s son, Archduke Rudolf (his patron), by playing the concerto for him privately; LvB also dedicated it to AR. 1st public performance in Vienna, on Emperor’s birthday, played by Carl Czerny, composer of many etudes, later teacher of Liszt. Many modern pianists have traced themselves back to LvB
  70. Christian Gottlieb Neefe
    • LvB 1st studied with father
    • then studied with Christian Gottlieb Neefe, university professor, who introduced LvB to music of JS Bach, encouraged improvising
  71. Ferdinand Morzin
    • 1758: Kapellmeister for his first patron, count Ferdinand Morzin (Vienna & Bohemia)
    • - Kapellmeister – in charge of all music in a court
    • - FJH’s 1st symphonies written for Morzin
  72. Count Walsegg Stupach
    • In 1791, WAM recieved a commission to write a Requiem mass by Count Walsegg-Stuppach, who had planned to claim he had written it himself
    • WAM grew ill and died before he completed it
    • His pupil, Franz Xaver Sussmayr, finished it.
  73. Emanuel Schikaneder
    • T: Die Zauberflote (The Magic Flute)
    • G: Singspiel
    • C: WAM
    • N: German
    • D: 1791
    • * Vienna years
    • Significant Features:

    Libretto by Emmanuel Schikaneder, actor, owned small suburban theater, which TMF saved from $$ problems;
  74. Elector Franz Maximilian
    Beethoven's grandfather and father were choral musicians at court of Elector Franz Maximilian (early patron)
  75. Emperor Franz II
    • T: String Quartet in C Major, Op.76, no.3
    • G: string quartet
    • C: FJH
    • N: Austrian
    • D: 1797

    Post Esterhazy years

    Significant Features:

    • 2nd mvmt = set of variations on tune that FJH composed to honor Emperor Franz II
    • tune later used as protestant hymn, national anthem of Austria, then Germany
    • each instrument takes turns playing melody
  76. Friedrich Schiller
    4th mvmt of Beethoven's Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125 (“choral”) includes chorus and vocal soloists (Influenced Mahler, Berlioz, Mendelssohn and more)

    setting of Friedrich Schiller’s Ode to Joy)
  77. Johann Peter Salomon
    • T: Symphony No. 41 in C Major “Jupiter”
    • G: Symphony
    • C: WAM
    • N: German
    • D:
    • “festive” symphony with trumpets, timpani
    • named by J.P. Salomon (stately; large scale, like planet)
  78. Johann Tost
    1787-88: Haydn wrote 5 symphonies, 2 commissioned by Johann Tost (Esterhazy violinist & wine merchant)
  79. Lorenzo da Ponte
    Mozart & Opera 1

    • WAM hoped to achieve early success in Vienna with opera
    • quickly wrote father re: requirements for librettist
    • “text is obedient daughter of music” (music more important)
    • found Lorenzo Da Ponte in 1786

    • colorful figure
    • often controversial
    • WAM’s librettist for Le nozze di Figaro, Don Giovanni, Cosi fan tutte
  80. Ludwig von Kochel
    • T: Variations on 'Ah, vous dirai-je maman' [Ah, I told you, mother]
    • k. 265 (300e) k= Ludwig Kochel
    • cataloagued WAM's works chronologically
    • G: Theme & Variations
    • C: WAM
    • N: German
    • D: 1778, Salzburg Years
    • SF: based on "familiar french folk tune"
  81. Napoleon Bonaparte
    • in reference to Beethoven's Eroica symphony:
    • 1802-5, Middle Hero’s identity revealed on title page of LvB’s autograph score of the symphony; Deleted: Grand Symphony entitled Bonaparte; Correction: Written about Bonaparte
    • Bonaparte originally had many admirers:

    • he had reunified France after Revolution
    • he planned to spread French democracy throughout Europe
    • but in 1804, Napoleon declared himself emperor (hereditary title)

    • dismayed, LvB supposedly destroyed title page
    • published dedication: “Heroic Symphony in memory of a great man”
  82. Prince Nicholas Galitzin
    • Beethoven’s Later Period II
    • LvB’s last project: 5 String Quartets (1824-6)

    • 1st 3 commissioned by Russian patron, Prince Nicholas Galitzin
    • often depart from sonata cycle
  83. Prince Paul Anton Esterhazy
    FJH’s Career as Court Musician

    • - 1758: Kapellmeister for his first patron, count Ferdinand Morzin (Vienna & Bohemia)
    • - Kapellmeister – in charge of all music in a court
    • - FJH’s 1st symphonies written for Morzin

    1761, PRINCE PAUL ANTON ESTERHAZY hears FJH’s music, hires FJH away from Morzin

    - Esterhazy aristocrats become lifelong patrons for FJH

    FJH hired as vice Kapellmeister, but really in charge (head K. was elderly and almost to retirement age

    • - CONTRACT PROVISIONS specify duties
    • - FJH essentially = servant
  84. Prince Nicholas Esterhazy
    - 1762, Paul Anton dies, his successor NICHOLAS, “The Magnificent,” builds Esterhaza

    Huge palatial estate, modeled on Versailles with military barracks, chapel, 2 theaters (opera, marionettes), music rooms (=recital halls)


    • - Esterhaza was isolated, intended for prince’s hunting
    • - But under FJH’s direction, it became a cultural center rivaling Vienna

    FJH claimed he “had no choice but to become original” because he was isolated
  85. Therese Jansen Bartolozzi
    Haydn's Last 3 sonatas written for Therese Jansen Bartolozzi, virtuoso, student of Clementi

    FJH witnessed her wedding during 2nd trip to England
  86. coda
    see pieces containing codas
  87. cyclical form
    in reference to Beethoven's 9th

    • **Uses CYCLICAL FORM: a method of unifying sonata-cycle compositions
    • = when thematic material of one mvmt is restated (“recycled”) in other mvmts
    • After “fright fanfare” themes from earlier mvmnts alternate with inst. recit
    • Events duplicated when voices enter = resemblance to double expo. form
    • Cyclical form important for nearly all romantic composers
  88. Double Exposition Form
    • * See pieces containing double exposition form
    • Classical Concerto: 1st Movement

    • 1st movements of classical concertos use special variant of sonata form
    • DOUBLE EXPOSITION FORM
    • 2 statements of exposition, but no repeat sign; 1st for orchestra alone, 2nd solist and orch. interact

    • 1st expo - Theme 1 : trans : Theme 2 : CT or A; NO modulation
    • 2nd expo - Theme 1 : trans : Theme 2 : CT or A; DOES modulate




    • 1st expo. (or other long passage for orchestra alone) called ritornello, as in old Baroque concerto
    • in 2nd expo, dvpt, recap, & coda, orch & soloist interact in normal sonata form, except near end:
    • cadenza = passage for soloist alone

    • in 18th C. usually improvised
    • begins on fermata at I6/4 chord
    • ends with trill, cue for orchestra to re-enter
  89. episode
    • T: String Quartet in C-sharp minor, Op. 131
    • G: String Quartet
    • C: LvB
    • N: G
    • D: 1826, Late
    • SF: 7 movements of extreme contrast;

    • 1st movement = fugue (subject stated by each instrument in turn); Fugues alternate btw expositions and episodes
    • 2nd mvmt = very simple sonata form that uses one theme, first in tonic, (I/i), then in secondary key (V/III or v) = monothematic

    • T: String Quartet in Eb Major, Op.33, no. 2 (“Joke”)
    • G: string quartet
    • C: FJH
    • N: Austrian
    • D: 1779

    middle Esterhazy years

    Significant Features:

    • Finale in sonata-rondo form (new for FHJ sting quartets): ABACA (I-IV-I-I-I)
    • rondo theme (refrain) is in ? form
    • episodes not new themes, but instead develop rondo theme (sonata-rondo)
    • joke = pauses, play on antecedent-consequent convention (ends with atecedent)
  90. Rondo Theme
    • T: String Quartet in Eb Major, Op.33, no. 2 (“Joke”)
    • G: string quartet
    • C: FJH
    • N: Austrian
    • D: 1779

    middle Esterhazy years

    Significant Features:

    • Finale in sonata-rondo form (new for FHJ sting quartets): ABACA (I-IV-I-I-I)
    • rondo theme (refrain) is in ? form
    • episodes not new themes, but instead develop rondo theme (sonata-rondo)
    • joke = pauses, play on antecedent-consequent convention (ends with atecedent)
  91. Rounded Binary Form
    • T: String Quartet in F Major, Op.18, no. 1
    • G: String Quartet
    • C: LvB
    • N: G
    • P: 1800 *early
    • Significant Features:

    • follows sonatat cycly, but not minuet and trio, is instread scherzo and trio
    • form of the scherzo is likewise traditional: rounded binary
    • but second part is greatly expanded; move to Ab , long cadential extension

    Trio is likewise in rounded binary form, butsecond part includes music that sounds developmentalDb balances Ab (third below and above tonic)
  92. Slow Introduction
    - Other innovations shaped the classical symphony’s standard form

    • New feature of many FJH symphonies: SLOW INTRODUCTION, slow passage (adagio); normally leads to dominant with fermata
    • Precedes faster body of movement


    - Normally leads to dominant with fermata
  93. sonata form
    • see handout!
    • see pieces containing sonata form
  94. sonata cycle
    • see form!
    • see pieces containing sonata cycle
  95. sonata-rondo
    • T: String Quartet in Eb Major, Op.33, no. 2 (“Joke”)
    • G: string quartet
    • C: FJH
    • N: Austrian
    • D: 1779

    middle Esterhazy years

    Significant Features:

    • Finale in sonata-rondo form (new for FHJ sting quartets): ABACA (I-IV-I-I-I)
    • rondo theme (refrain) is in ? form
    • episodes not new themes, but instead develop rondo theme (sonata-rondo)
    • joke = pauses, play on antecedent-consequent convention (ends with atecedent)
  96. Theme and variations
    • T: String Quartet in A major, Op. 18, no.5
    • G: SQ
    • C: LvB
    • N: G
    • P:1800
    • SF: LvB modeled 18/5 on WAM’s K. 464 in A major (which LvB copied by hand) in both SQ’s); slow movement is in 3rd position; Andante 2/4 D major; form is theme and variations, inst. take turns; 4th variation is in minor; last variation introduces new “drum” figure that continues in coda; coda contains simple reminiscence of theme

    • T: Diabelli Variations
    • G: Theme and Variations
    • C: LvB
    • N: German
    • D: 1828, Late
    • SF: uses trivial waltz by Anton Diabelli, who asked many composers to write 1 variation each on it; LvB initially refused, calling waltz a Schusterfleck (hodgepodge)
  97. varied strophic form
    • in reference to:
    • T: Die Zauberflote (The Magic Flute)
    • G: Singspiel
    • C: WAM
    • N: German
    • D: 1791:

    • Papageno’s music is therefore simple
    • Strophic form = each stanza of a poem is sung to the same music
    • Varied strophic form = each stanza’s music is slightly varied
    • WAM played the “varied” Glockenspiel part
    • Refrain follows each stanza

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